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dsp.ChannelSynthesizer

Polyphase FFT synthesis filter bank

Description

The dsp.ChannelSynthesizer System object™ merges multiple narrowband signals into a broadband signal by using an FFT based synthesis filter bank. The filter bank uses a prototype lowpass filter and is implemented using a polyphase structure. You can specify the filter coefficients directly or through design parameters.

To merge multiple narrowband signals into a broadband signal:

  1. Create the dsp.ChannelSynthesizer object and set its properties.

  2. Call the object with arguments, as if it were a function.

To learn more about how System objects work, see What Are System Objects? (MATLAB).

Creation

Syntax

synthesizer = dsp.ChannelSynthesizer
synthesizer = dsp.ChannelSynthesizer(Name,Value)

Description

example

synthesizer = dsp.ChannelSynthesizer creates a synthesizer object, using the default properties.

synthesizer = dsp.ChannelSynthesizer(Name,Value) specifies additional properties using Name,Value pairs. Unspecified properties have default values.

Example: synthesizer = dsp.ChannelSynthesizer('NumTapsPerBand',20,'StopbandAttenuation',140)

Properties

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Unless otherwise indicated, properties are nontunable, which means you cannot change their values after calling the object. Objects lock when you call them, and the release function unlocks them.

If a property is tunable, you can change its value at any time.

For more information on changing property values, see System Design in MATLAB Using System Objects (MATLAB).

Filter design parameters or filter coefficients, specified as one of these options:

  • 'Number of taps per band and stopband attenuation' — Specify the filter design parameters through the NumTapsPerBand and StopbandAttenuation properties.

  • 'Coefficients' — Specify the filter coefficients directly using LowpassCoefficients.

Number of filter coefficients each polyphase branch uses, specified as a positive integer. The number of polyphase branches matches the number of frequency bands. The total number of filter coefficients for the prototype lowpass filter is given by product of the number of frequency bands and NumTapsPerBand. For a given stopband attenuation, increasing the number of taps per band narrows the transition width of the filter. As a result, there is more usable bandwidth for each frequency band at the expense of increased computation.

Dependencies

This property applies when you set Specification to 'Number of taps per band and stopband attenuation'.

Data Types: single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | int64 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | uint64

Stopband attenuation of the lowpass filter, specified as a positive real scalar in dB. This value controls the maximum amount of aliasing from one frequency band to the next. Larger is the stopband attenuation, smaller is the passband ripple.

Dependencies

This property applies when you set Specification to 'Number of taps per band and stopband attenuation'.

Data Types: single | double

Coefficients of the prototype lowpass filter, specified as a row vector. There must be at least one coefficient per frequency band. If the length of the lowpass filter is less than the number of frequency bands, the object zero-pads the coefficients.

Tunable: Yes

Dependencies

This property applies when you set Specification to 'Coefficients'.

Data Types: single | double

Usage

Syntax

synthOut = synthesizer(input)

Description

example

synthOut = synthesizer(input) merges the narrowband input signals contained as columns in input into broadband signal, synthOut.

Input Arguments

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Narrowband signals, specified as a matrix or a 3-D array. Each narrowband signal is stored as a column in the input signal. The number of columns in input corresponds to the number of frequency bands of the filter bank. If input is three-dimensional, each matrix corresponds to a separate channel. If M is the number of frequency bands, and input is an L-by-M matrix, then the output signal, synthOut, has dimensions L×M-by-1. If input has more than one channel, that is, it has dimensions L-by-M-by-N, then synthOut has dimensions L×M-by-N.

This object also accepts variable-size inputs. That is, once the object is locked, you can change the size of each input channel. The number of channels cannot change.

Data Types: single | double
Complex Number Support: Yes

Output Arguments

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Merged broadband signal, returned as a matrix or a 3-D array. If M is the number of frequency bands, and input is an L-by-M matrix, then the output signal, synthOut, has dimensions L×M-by-1. If input has more than one channel, that is, it has dimensions L-by-M-by-N, then synthOut has dimensions L×M-by-N.

Data Types: single | double
Complex Number Support: Yes

Object Functions

To use an object function, specify the System object as the first input argument. For example, to release system resources of a System object named obj, use this syntax:

release(obj)

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coeffsCoefficients of prototype lowpass filter
tfReturn transfer function of overall prototype lowpass filter
polyphaseReturn polyphase matrix
stepRun System object algorithm
releaseRelease resources and allow changes to System object property values and input characteristics
resetReset internal states of System object

Examples

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The quadrature mirror filter bank (QMF) contains an analysis filter bank section and a synthesis filter bank section. dsp.Channelizer implements the analysis filter bank. dsp.ChannelSynthesizer implements the synthesis filter bank using the efficient polyphase implementation based on a prototype lowpass filter.

Initialization

Initialize the dsp.Channelizer and dsp.ChannelSynthesizer System objects. Each object is set up with 8 frequency bands, 8 polyphase branches in each filter, 12 coefficients per polyphase branch, and a stopband attenuation of 140 dB. Use a sine wave with multiple frequencies as the input signal. View the input spectrum and the output spectrum using a spectrum analyzer.

offsets = [-40,-30,-20,10,15,25,35,-15];
sinewave = dsp.SineWave('ComplexOutput',true,'Frequency',...
    offsets+(-375:125:500),'SamplesPerFrame',800);

channelizer = dsp.Channelizer('StopbandAttenuation',140);
synthesizer = dsp.ChannelSynthesizer('StopbandAttenuation',140);
spectrumAnalyzer =  dsp.SpectrumAnalyzer('ShowLegend',true,'NumInputPorts',...
    2,'ChannelNames',{'Input','Output'},'Title','Input and Output of QMF');

Streaming

Use the channelizer to split the broadband input signal into multiple narrow bands. Then pass the multiple narrowband signals into the synthesizer, which merges these signals to form the broadband signal. Compare the spectra of the input and output signals. The input and output spectra match very closely.

for i = 1:5000
    x = sum(sinewave(),2);
    y = channelizer(x);
    v = synthesizer(y);
    spectrumAnalyzer(x,v)
end

More About

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Algorithms

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References

[1] Harris, Fredric J, Multirate Signal Processing for Communication Systems, Prentice Hall PTR, 2004.

[2] Harris, F.J., Chris Dick, Michael Rice. "Digital Receivers and Transmitters Using Polyphase Filter Banks for Wireless Communications." IEEE Transactions on microwave theory and techniques. Vol. 51, Number 4, April 2003.

Extended Capabilities

Introduced in R2016b