# simulate

## Syntax

## Description

`[`

returns 1000 random vectors of state-space model parameters `Params`

,`accept`

] = simulate(`PriorMdl`

,`Y`

,`params0`

,`Proposal`

)`Params`

drawn
from the posterior distribution
*Π*(*θ*|`Y`

), where
`PriorMdl`

specifies the prior distribution and data likelihood, and
`Y`

is the observed response data. `params0`

is the
set of initial parameter values and `Proposal`

is the covariance matrix
of the proposal distribution of the Metropolis-Hastings sampler [1][2]. `accept`

is the
acceptance rate of the proposal draws.

`[`

specifies options using one or more name-value arguments. For example,
`Params`

,`accept`

] = simulate(`PriorMdl`

,`Y`

,`params0`

,`Proposal`

,`Name=Value`

)`simulate(PriorMdl,Y,params0,Proposal,NumDraws=1e6,Thin=3,DoF=10)`

uses
the multivariate *t*_{10} distribution for the
Metropolis-Hastings proposal, draws `3e6`

random vectors of parameters, and
thins the sample to reduce serial correlation by discarding every 2 draws until it retains
`1e6`

draws.

`[`

also returns the output `Params`

,`accept`

,`Output`

] = simulate(`PriorMdl`

,`Y`

,`params0`

,`Proposal`

,`Name=Value`

)`Output`

of the custom function that monitors the
Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm at each iteration, specified by the
`OutputFunction`

name-value argument.

## Examples

### Draw Random Parameters from Posterior Distribution of Time-Invariant Model

Simulate observed responses from a known state-space model, then treat the model as Bayesian and draw parameters from the posterior distribution.

Suppose the following state-space model is a data-generating process (DGP).

$$\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{t,1}\\ {x}_{t,2}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{cc}0.5& 0\\ 0& -0.75\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{t-1,1}\\ {x}_{t-1,2}\end{array}\right]+\left[\begin{array}{cc}1& 0\\ 0& 0.5\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{u}_{t,1}\\ {u}_{t,2}\end{array}\right]$$

$${y}_{t}=\left[\begin{array}{cc}1& 1\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{t,1}\\ {x}_{t,2}\end{array}\right].$$

Create a standard state-space model object `ssm`

that represents the DGP.

trueTheta = [0.5; -0.75; 1; 0.5]; A = [trueTheta(1) 0; 0 trueTheta(2)]; B = [trueTheta(3) 0; 0 trueTheta(4)]; C = [1 1]; DGP = ssm(A,B,C);

Simulate a response path from the DGP.

```
rng(1); % For reproducibility
y = simulate(DGP,200);
```

Suppose the structure of the DGP is known, but the state parameters `trueTheta`

are unknown, explicitly

$$\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{t,1}\\ {x}_{t,2}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{cc}{\varphi}_{1}& 0\\ 0& {\varphi}_{2}\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{t-1,1}\\ {x}_{t-1,2}\end{array}\right]+\left[\begin{array}{cc}{\sigma}_{1}& 0\\ 0& {\sigma}_{2}\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{u}_{t,1}\\ {u}_{t,2}\end{array}\right]$$

$${y}_{t}=\left[\begin{array}{cc}1& 1\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{t,1}\\ {x}_{t,2}\end{array}\right].$$

Consider a Bayesian state-space model representing the model with unknown parameters. Arbitrarily assume that the prior distribution of ${\varphi}_{1}$, ${\varphi}_{2}$, ${\sigma}_{1}^{2}$, and ${\sigma}_{2}^{2}$ are independent Gaussian random variables with mean 0.5 and variance 1.

The Local Functions section contains two functions required to specify the Bayesian state-space model. You can use the functions only within this script.

The `paramMap`

function accepts a vector of the unknown state-space model parameters and returns all the following quantities:

`A`

= $\left[\begin{array}{cc}{\varphi}_{1}& 0\\ 0& {\varphi}_{2}\end{array}\right]$.`B`

= $\left[\begin{array}{cc}{\sigma}_{1}& 0\\ 0& {\sigma}_{2}\end{array}\right]$.`C`

= $\left[\begin{array}{cc}1& 1\end{array}\right]$.`D`

= 0.`Mean0`

and`Cov0`

are empty arrays`[]`

, which specify the defaults.`StateType`

= $\left[\begin{array}{cc}0& 0\end{array}\right]$, indicating that each state is stationary.

The `paramDistribution`

function accepts the same vector of unknown parameters as does `paramMap`

, but it returns the log prior density of the parameters at their current values. Specify that parameter values outside the parameter space have log prior density of `-Inf`

.

Create the Bayesian state-space model by passing function handles directly to `paramMap`

and `paramDistribution`

to `bssm`

.

Mdl = bssm(@paramMap,@priorDistribution)

Mdl = Mapping that defines a state-space model: @paramMap Log density of parameter prior distribution: @priorDistribution

The `simulate`

function requires a proposal distribution scale matrix. You can obtain a data-driven proposal scale matrix by using the `tune`

function. Alternatively, you can supply your own scale matrix.

Obtain a data-driven scale matrix by using the `tune`

function. Supply a random set of initial parameter values, and shut off the estimation summary display.

numParams = 4; theta0 = rand(numParams,1); [theta0,Proposal] = tune(Mdl,y,theta0,Display=false);

Local minimum found. Optimization completed because the size of the gradient is less than the value of the optimality tolerance.

Draw 1000 random parameter vectors from the posterior distribution. Specify the simulated response path as observed responses and the optimized values returned by `tune`

for the initial parameter values and the proposal distribution.

[Theta,accept] = simulate(Mdl,y,theta0,Proposal); accept

accept = 0.4010

`Theta`

is a 4-by-1000 matrix of randomly drawn parameters from the posterior distribution. Rows correspond to the elements of the input argument `theta`

of the functions `paramMap`

and `priorDistribution`

.

`accept`

is the proposal acceptance probability. In this case, `simulate`

accepts 40% of the proposal draws.

Create trace plots of the parameters.

paramNames = ["\phi_1" "\phi_2" "\sigma_1" "\sigma_2"]; figure h = tiledlayout(4,1); for j = 1:numParams nexttile plot(Theta(j,:)) hold on yline(trueTheta(j)) ylabel(paramNames(j)) end title(h,"Posterior Trace Plots")

The sampler eventually settles at near the true values of the parameters. In this case, the sample shows serial correlation and transient behavior. You can remedy serial correlation in the sample by adjusting the `Thin`

name-value argument, and you can remedy transient effects by increasing the burn-in period using the `BurnIn`

name-value argument.

**Local Functions**

This example uses the following functions. `paramMap`

is the parameter-to-matrix mapping function and `priorDistribution`

is the log prior distribution of the parameters.

function [A,B,C,D,Mean0,Cov0,StateType] = paramMap(theta) A = [theta(1) 0; 0 theta(2)]; B = [theta(3) 0; 0 theta(4)]; C = [1 1]; D = 0; Mean0 = []; % MATLAB uses default initial state mean Cov0 = []; % MATLAB uses initial state covariances StateType = [0; 0]; % Two stationary states end function logprior = priorDistribution(theta) paramconstraints = [(abs(theta(1)) >= 1) (abs(theta(2)) >= 1) ... (theta(3) < 0) (theta(4) < 0)]; if(sum(paramconstraints)) logprior = -Inf; else mu0 = 0.5*ones(numel(theta),1); sigma0 = 1; p = normpdf(theta,mu0,sigma0); logprior = sum(log(p)); end end

### Improve Markov Chain Convergence

Consider the model in the example Draw Random Parameters from Posterior Distribution of Time-Invariant Model. Improve the Markov chain convergence by adjusting sampler options.

Create a standard state-space model object `ssm`

that represents the DGP, and then simulate a response path.

```
trueTheta = [0.5; -0.75; 1; 0.5];
A = [trueTheta(1) 0; 0 trueTheta(2)];
B = [trueTheta(3) 0; 0 trueTheta(4)];
C = [1 1];
DGP = ssm(A,B,C);
rng(1); % For reproducibility
y = simulate(DGP,200);
```

Create the Bayesian state-space model by passing function handles directly to `paramMap`

and `paramDistribution`

to `bssm`

(the functions are in Local Functions`)`

.

Mdl = bssm(@paramMap,@priorDistribution)

Mdl = Mapping that defines a state-space model: @paramMap Log density of parameter prior distribution: @priorDistribution

Simulate random parameter vectors from the posterior distribution. Specify the simulated response path as observed responses, and obtain an optimal proposal distribution by using `tune`

and shut off all optimization displays. The plots in Draw Random Parameters from Posterior Distribution of Time-Invariant Model suggest that the Markov chain settles after 500 draws. Therefore, specify a burn-in period of 500 (`BurnIn=500`

). Specify thinning the sample by keeping the first draw of each set of 30 successive draws (`Thin=30`

). Retain 2000 random parameter vectors (`NumDraws=2000`

).

numParams = 4; theta0 = rand(numParams,1); options = optimoptions("fminunc",Display="off"); [theta0,Proposal] = tune(Mdl,y,theta0,Display=false,Options=options); [Theta,accept] = simulate(Mdl,y,theta0,Proposal, ... NumDraws=2000,BurnIn=500,Thin=30); accept

accept = 0.3885

`Theta`

is a 4-by-2000 matrix of randomly drawn parameters from the posterior distribution. Rows correspond to the elements of the input argument `theta`

of the functions `paramMap`

and `priorDistribution`

.

`accept`

is the proposal acceptance probability. In this case, `simulate`

accepts 39% of the proposal draws.

Create trace plots and correlograms of the parameters.

paramNames = ["\phi_1" "\phi_2" "\sigma_1" "\sigma_2"]; figure h = tiledlayout(4,1); for j = 1:numParams nexttile plot(Theta(j,:)) hold on yline(trueTheta(j)) ylabel(paramNames(j)) end title(h,"Posterior Trace Plots")

figure h = tiledlayout(4,1); for j = 1:numParams nexttile autocorr(Theta(j,:)); ylabel(paramNames(j)); title([]); end title(h,"Posterior Sample Correlograms")

The sampler quickly settles near the true values of the parameters. The sample shows little serial correlation and no transient behavior.

**Local Functions**

This example uses the following functions. `paramMap`

is the parameter-to-matrix mapping function and `priorDistribution`

is the log prior distribution of the parameters.

function [A,B,C,D,Mean0,Cov0,StateType] = paramMap(theta) A = [theta(1) 0; 0 theta(2)]; B = [theta(3) 0; 0 theta(4)]; C = [1 1]; D = 0; Mean0 = []; % MATLAB uses default initial state mean Cov0 = []; % MATLAB uses initial state covariances StateType = [0; 0]; % Two stationary states end function logprior = priorDistribution(theta) paramconstraints = [(abs(theta(1)) >= 1) (abs(theta(2)) >= 1) ... (theta(3) < 0) (theta(4) < 0)]; if(sum(paramconstraints)) logprior = -Inf; else mu0 = 0.5*ones(numel(theta),1); sigma0 = 1; p = normpdf(theta,mu0,sigma0); logprior = sum(log(p)); end end

### Simulate Parameters from Posterior of Time-Varying Model

Consider the following time-varying, state-space model for a DGP:

From periods 1 through 250, the state equation includes stationary AR(2) and MA(1) models, respectively, and the observation model is the weighted sum of the two states.

From periods 251 through 500, the state model includes only the first AR(2) model.

${\mu}_{0}=\left[\begin{array}{cccc}0.5& 0.5& 0& 0\end{array}\right]$ and ${\Sigma}_{0}$ is the identity matrix.

Symbolically, the DGP is

$\begin{array}{l}\begin{array}{c}\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{1t}\\ {x}_{2t}\\ {x}_{3t}\\ {x}_{4t}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{cccc}{\varphi}_{1}& {\varphi}_{2}& 0& 0\\ 1& 0& 0& 0\\ 0& 0& 0& \theta \\ 0& 0& 0& 0\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{1,t-1}\\ {x}_{2,t-1}\\ {x}_{3,t-1}\\ {x}_{4,t-1}\end{array}\right]+\left[\begin{array}{cc}{\sigma}_{1}& 0\\ 0& 0\\ 0& 1\\ 0& 1\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{u}_{1t}\\ {u}_{2t}\end{array}\right]\\ {y}_{t}={c}_{1}\left({x}_{1t}+{x}_{3t}\right)+{\sigma}_{2}{\epsilon}_{t}.\end{array}\phantom{\rule{0.2777777777777778em}{0ex}}for\phantom{\rule{0.2777777777777778em}{0ex}}t=1,...,250,\\ \begin{array}{c}\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{1t}\\ {x}_{2t}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{cccc}{\varphi}_{1}& {\varphi}_{2}& 0& 0\\ 1& 0& 0& 0\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{1,t-1}\\ {x}_{2,t-1}\\ {x}_{3,t-1}\\ {x}_{4,t-1}\end{array}\right]+\left[\begin{array}{c}{\sigma}_{1}\\ 0\end{array}\right]{u}_{1t}\\ {y}_{t}={c}_{2}{x}_{1t}+{\sigma}_{3}{\epsilon}_{t}.\end{array}\phantom{\rule{0.2777777777777778em}{0ex}}for\phantom{\rule{0.2777777777777778em}{0ex}}t=251,\\ \begin{array}{c}\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{1t}\\ {x}_{2t}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{cc}{\varphi}_{1}& {\varphi}_{2}\\ 1& 0\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{1,t-1}\\ {x}_{2,t-1}\end{array}\right]+\left[\begin{array}{c}{\sigma}_{1}\\ 0\end{array}\right]{u}_{1t}\\ {y}_{t}={c}_{2}{x}_{1t}+{\sigma}_{3}{\epsilon}_{t}.\end{array}\phantom{\rule{0.2777777777777778em}{0ex}}for\phantom{\rule{0.2777777777777778em}{0ex}}t=252,...,500.\end{array}$

where:

The AR(2) parameters $\left\{{\varphi}_{1},{\varphi}_{2}\right\}=\left\{0.5,-0.2\right\}$ and ${\sigma}_{1}=0.4$.

The MA(1) parameter $\theta =0.3$.

The observation equation parameters $\left\{{\mathit{c}}_{1},{\mathit{c}}_{2}\right\}=\left\{2,3\right\}$ and $\left\{{\sigma}_{2},{\sigma}_{3}\right\}=\left\{0.1,0.2\right\}$.

Write a function that specifies how the parameters `theta`

and sample size `T`

map to the state-space model matrices, the initial state moments, and the state types. Save this code as a file named `timeVariantParamMapBayes.m`

on your MATLAB® path. Alternatively, open the example to access the function.

`type timeVariantParamMapBayes.m`

% Copyright 2022 The MathWorks, Inc. function [A,B,C,D,Mean0,Cov0,StateType] = timeVariantParamMapBayes(theta,T) % Time-variant, Bayesian state-space model parameter mapping function % example. This function maps the vector params to the state-space matrices % (A, B, C, and D), the initial state value and the initial state variance % (Mean0 and Cov0), and the type of state (StateType). From periods 1 % through T/2, the state model is a stationary AR(2) and an MA(1) model, % and the observation model is the weighted sum of the two states. From % periods T/2 + 1 through T, the state model is the AR(2) model only. The % log prior distribution enforces parameter constraints (see % flatPriorBSSM.m). T1 = floor(T/2); T2 = T - T1 - 1; A1 = {[theta(1) theta(2) 0 0; 1 0 0 0; 0 0 0 theta(4); 0 0 0 0]}; B1 = {[theta(3) 0; 0 0; 0 1; 0 1]}; C1 = {theta(5)*[1 0 1 0]}; D1 = {theta(6)}; Mean0 = [0.5 0.5 0 0]; Cov0 = eye(4); StateType = [0 0 0 0]; A2 = {[theta(1) theta(2) 0 0; 1 0 0 0]}; B2 = {[theta(3); 0]}; A3 = {[theta(1) theta(2); 1 0]}; B3 = {[theta(3); 0]}; C3 = {theta(7)*[1 0]}; D3 = {theta(8)}; A = [repmat(A1,T1,1); A2; repmat(A3,T2,1)]; B = [repmat(B1,T1,1); B2; repmat(B3,T2,1)]; C = [repmat(C1,T1,1); repmat(C3,T2+1,1)]; D = [repmat(D1,T1,1); repmat(D3,T2+1,1)]; end

Simulate a response path of length 500 from the model.

params = [0.5; -0.2; 0.4; 0.3; 2; 0.1; 3; 0.2]; numObs = 500; numParams = numel(params); [A,B,C,D,mean0,Cov0,stateType] = timeVariantParamMapBayes(params,numObs); DGP = ssm(A,B,C,D,Mean0=mean0,Cov0=Cov0,StateType=stateType); rng(1) % For reproducibility y = simulate(DGP,numObs); plot(y) ylabel("y")

Write a function that specifies a flat prior distribution on the state-space model parameters `theta`

. The function returns the scalar log prior for an input set of parameters. Save this code as a file named `flatPriorBSSM.m`

on your MATLAB® path. Alternatively, open the example to access the function.

`type flatPriorBSSM.m`

% Copyright 2022 The MathWorks, Inc. function logprior = flatPriorBSSM(theta) % flatPriorBSSM computes the log of the flat prior density for the eight % variables in theta (see timeVariantParamMapBayes.m). Log probabilities % for parameters outside the parameter space are -Inf. % theta(1) and theta(2) are lag 1 and lag 2 terms in a stationary AR(2) % model. The eigenvalues of the AR(1) representation need to be within % the unit circle. evalsAR2 = eig([theta(1) theta(2); 1 0]); evalsOutUC = sum(abs(evalsAR2) >= 1) > 0; % Standard deviations of disturbances and errors (theta(3), theta(6), % and theta(8)) need to be positive. nonnegsig1 = theta(3) <= 0; nonnegsig2 = theta(6) <= 0; nonnegsig3 = theta(8) <= 0; paramconstraints = [evalsOutUC nonnegsig1 ... nonnegsig2 nonnegsig3]; if sum(paramconstraints) > 0 logprior = -Inf; else logprior = 0; % Prior density is proportional to 1 for all values % in the parameter space. end end

Create a time-varying, Bayesian state-space model that uses the structure of the DGP.

Mdl = bssm(@(params)timeVariantParamMapBayes(params,numObs),@flatPriorBSSM);

Draw a sample from the posterior distribution. Initialize the parameter values to a random set of positive values in [0,0.5]. Set the proposal distribution to multivariate ${\mathit{t}}_{25}$ with a scale matrix proportional. Set the proportionality constant to 0.005.

params0 = 0.5*rand(numParams,1); options = optimoptions("fminunc",Display="off"); [params0,Proposal] = tune(Mdl,y,params0,Options=options,Display=false); [PostParams,accept] = simulate(Mdl,y,params0,Proposal, ... DoF=25,Proportion=0.005); accept

accept = 0.7460

`PostParams`

is an 8-by-1000 matrix of 1000 random draws from the posterior distribution. The Metropolis-Hastings sampler accepted 75% of the proposed draws.

### Draw Posterior Sample From Model with Deflated Response

When you work with a state-space model that contains a deflated response variable, you must have data for the predictors.

Consider a regression of the US unemployment rate onto and real gross national product (rGNP) rate, and suppose the resulting innovations are an ARMA(1,1) process. The state-space form of the relationship is

$$\begin{array}{l}\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{1,t}\\ {x}_{2,t}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{cc}\varphi & \theta \\ 0& 0\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{1,t-1}\\ {x}_{2,t-1}\end{array}\right]+\left[\begin{array}{c}\sigma \\ 1\end{array}\right]{u}_{t}\\ {y}_{t}-\beta {Z}_{t}={x}_{1,t},\end{array}$$

where:

$${x}_{1,t}$$ is the ARMA process.

$${x}_{2,t}$$ is a dummy state for the MA(1) effect.

$${y}_{t}$$ is the observed unemployment rate deflated by a constant and the rGNP rate ($${Z}_{t}$$).

$${u}_{t}$$ is an iid Gaussian series with mean 0 and standard deviation 1.

Load the Nelson-Plosser data set, which contains a table `DataTable`

that has the unemployment rate and rGNP series, among other series.

`load Data_NelsonPlosser`

Create a variable in `DataTable`

that represents the returns of the raw rGNP series. Because price-to-returns conversion reduces the sample size by one, prepad the series with `NaN`

.

DataTable.RGNPRate = [NaN; price2ret(DataTable.GNPR)]; T = height(DataTable);

Create variables for the regression. Represent the unemployment rate as the observation series and the constant and rGNP rate series as the deflation data ${\mathit{Z}}_{\mathit{t}}$.

Z = [ones(T,1) DataTable.RGNPRate]; y = DataTable.UR;

Write a function that specifies how the parameters `theta`

, response series `y`

, and deflation data `Z`

map to the state-space model matrices, the initial state moments, and the state types. Save this code as a file named `armaDeflateYBayes.m`

on your MATLAB® path. Alternatively, open the example to access the function.

`type armaDeflateYBayes.m`

% Copyright 2022 The MathWorks, Inc. function [A,B,C,D,Mean0,Cov0,StateType,DeflatedY] = armaDeflateYBayes(theta,y,Z) % Time-invariant, Bayesian state-space model parameter mapping function % example. This function maps the vector parameters to the state-space % matrices (A, B, C, and D), the default initial state value and the % default initial state variance (Mean0 and Cov0), the type of state % (StateType), and the deflated observations (DeflatedY). The log prior % distribution enforces parameter constraints (see flatPriorDeflateY.m). A = [theta(1) theta(2); 0 0]; B = [theta(3); 1]; C = [1 0]; D = 0; Mean0 = []; Cov0 = []; StateType = [0 0]; DeflatedY = y - Z*[theta(4); theta(5)]; end

Write a function that specifies a flat prior distribution on the state-space model parameters `theta`

. The function returns the scalar log prior for an input set of parameters. Save this code as a file named `flatPriorDeflateY.m`

on your MATLAB® path. Alternatively, open the example to access the function.

`type flatPriorDeflateY.m`

% Copyright 2022 The MathWorks, Inc. function logprior = flatPriorDeflateY(theta) % flatPriorDeflateY computes the log of the flat prior density for the five % variables in theta (see armaDeflateYBayes.m). Log probabilities % for parameters outside the parameter space are -Inf. % theta(1) and theta(2) are the AR and MA terms in a stationary % ARMA(1,1) model. The AR term must be within the unit circle. AROutUC = abs(theta(1)) >= 1; % The standard deviation of innovations (theta(3)) must be positive. nonnegsig1 = theta(3) <= 0; paramconstraints = [AROutUC nonnegsig1]; if sum(paramconstraints) > 0 logprior = -Inf; else logprior = 0; % Prior density is proportional to 1 for all values % in the parameter space. end end

Create a `bssm`

object representing the Bayesian state-space model. Specify the parameter-to-matrix mapping function as a handle to a function solely of the parameters.

numParams = 5; Mdl = bssm(@(params)armaDeflateYBayes(params,y,Z),@flatPriorDeflateY)

Mdl = Mapping that defines a state-space model: @(params)armaDeflateYBayes(params,y,Z) Log density of parameter prior distribution: @flatPriorDeflateY

Draw a sample from the posterior distribution. Initialize the MCMC algorithm with a random set of positive values in [0,0.5]. Obtain an optimal set of proposal distribution moments for the sampler by using `tune`

. Set the proportionality constant to 0.01. Set a burn-in period of 2000 draws, set a thinning factor of 50, and specify retaining 1000 draws.

rng(1) % For reproducibility params0 = 0.5*rand(numParams,1); options = optimoptions("fminunc",Display="off"); [params0,Proposal] = tune(Mdl,y,params0,Options=options, ... Display=false); [PostParams,accept] = simulate(Mdl,y,params0,Proposal,Proportion=0.01, ... BurnIn=2000,NumDraws=1000,Thin=50); accept

accept = 0.9200

`PostParams`

is a 5-by-1000 matrix of 1000 draws from the posterior distribution. The Metropolis-Hastings sampler accepts 92% of the proposed draws.

paramNames = ["\phi" "\theta" "\sigma" "\beta_0" "\beta_1"]; figure h = tiledlayout(numParams,1); for j = 1:numParams nexttile plot(PostParams(j,:)) hold on ylabel(paramNames(j)) end title(h,"Posterior Trace Plots")

All samples appear to suffer from autocorrelation. To improve the Markov chain, experiment with the `Thin`

option.

### Access Degrees of Freedom Posterior Draws Using Output Function

The `estimate`

and `simulate`

functions do not return posterior draws of the degrees of freedom parameters of multivariate t-distributed state disturbances and observation innovations. However, you can write an output function that stores the degrees of freedom draws at each iteration of the MCMC algorithm, and pass it to `simulate`

to obtain the draws.

Consider the following DGP.

$$\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{t,1}\\ {x}_{t,2}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{cc}{\varphi}_{1}& 0\\ 0& {\varphi}_{2}\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{t-1,1}\\ {x}_{t-1,2}\end{array}\right]+\left[\begin{array}{cc}{\sigma}_{1}& 0\\ 0& {\sigma}_{2}\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{u}_{t,1}\\ {u}_{t,2}\end{array}\right]$$

$${y}_{t}=\left[\begin{array}{cc}1& 3\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{t,1}\\ {x}_{t,2}\end{array}\right].$$

The true value of the state-space parameter set $\Theta =\left\{{\varphi}_{1},\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\varphi}_{2},\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\sigma}_{1},{\sigma}_{2}\right\}=\left\{0.5,-0.75,1,0.5\right\}$.

The state disturbances ${\mathit{u}}_{1,\mathit{t}}$ and ${\mathit{u}}_{2,\mathit{t}}$ are jointly a multivariate Student's $\mathit{t}$ random series with ${\nu}_{\mathit{u}}=5$ degrees of freedom.

Create a vector autoregression (VAR) model that represents the state equation of the DGP.

trueTheta = [0.5; -0.75; 1; 0.5]; trueDoF = 5; phi = [trueTheta(1) 0; 0 trueTheta(2)]; Sigma = [trueTheta(3)^2 0; 0 trueTheta(4)^2]; DGP = varm(AR={phi},Covariance=Sigma,Constant=[0; 0]);

Filter a random 2-D multivariate central $\mathit{t}$ series of length 500 through the VAR model to obtain state values. Set the degrees of freedom to 5.

```
rng(10) % For reproducibility
T = 500;
trueU = mvtrnd(eye(DGP.NumSeries),trueDoF,T);
X = filter(DGP,trueU);
```

Obtain a series of observations from the DGP by the linear combination ${\mathit{y}}_{\mathit{t}}={\mathit{x}}_{1,\mathit{e}}+3{\mathit{x}}_{2,\mathit{t}}$.

C = [1 3]; y = X*C';

Consider a Bayesian state-space model representing the model with parameters $\Theta $ and ${\nu}_{\mathit{u}}$ treated as unknown. Arbitrarily assume that the prior distribution of the parameters in $\Theta $ are independent Gaussian random variables with mean 0.5 and variance 1. Assume that the prior on the degrees of freedom ${\nu}_{\mathit{u}}$ is flat. The functions in Local Functions specify the state-space structure and prior distributions.

Create the Bayesian state-space model by passing function handles to the `paramMap`

and `priorDistribution`

functions to `bssm`

. Specify that the state disturbance distribution is multivariate Student's $\mathit{t}$ with unknown degrees of freedom.

`PriorMdl = bssm(@paramMap,@priorDistribution,StateDistribution="t");`

`PriorMdl`

is a `bssm`

object representing the Bayesian state-space model with unknown parameters.

In Local Functions, write a function called `posteriorDrawsNuU`

that accepts the input structure and returns the posterior draws of ${\nu}_{\mathit{u}}$.

function StateDoF = posteriorDrawsStateDoF(inputstruct) StateDoF = inputstruct.StateDoF; end

Simulate draws from the posterior distribution of $\Theta ,{\nu}_{\mathit{u}}|\mathit{y}$ by using `simulate`

. Specify a random set of positive values in [0,1] to initialize the Kalman filter.

Set the burn-in period of the MCMC algorithm to 1000 draws, draw a sample of 10000 from the posterior, specify the univariate treatment of multivariate series for faster computations, and set the proposal scale matrix to a diagonal matrix with small values along the diagonal to increase the proposal acceptance rate.

numParamsTheta = 4; theta0 = rand(numParamsTheta,1); [ThetaPostDraws,accept,StateDoFDraws] = simulate(PriorMdl,y,theta0, ... eye(numParamsTheta)/1000,BurnIn=1e3,NumDraws=1e4, ... Univariate=true,OutputFunction=@posteriorDrawsStateDoF); [numThetaParams,numDraws] = size(ThetaPostDraws)

numThetaParams = 4

numDraws = 10000

accept

accept = 0.4066

size(StateDoFDraws)

`ans = `*1×2*
1 10000

`ThetaPostDraws`

is a 4-by-10000 matrix containing the posterior draws of the parameters $\Theta $. `accept`

is the Metropolis-Hastings sampler acceptance probability, in this case 41%, which means that `simulate`

rejected 59% of the posterior draws. `StateDoFDraws`

is a 1-by-10000 vector containing the posterior draws of ${\nu}_{\mathit{u}}$.

To diagnose the Markov chain induced by the Metropolis-within-Gibbs sampler, create a trace plot of the posterior draws of ${\nu}_{\mathit{u}}$.

```
figure
plot(StateDoFDraws)
title("Posterior Trace Plot of \nu_u")
```

The posterior sample shows significant serial correlation. You can remedy these behaviors by adjusting the `Thin`

name-value argument. In general, `simulate`

has name-value arguments that enable you to control several aspects of the MCMC sampler, which can improve the quality of the posterior sample.

**Local Functions**

This example uses the following functions. `paramMap`

is the parameter-to-matrix mapping function and `priorDistribution`

is the log prior distribution of the parameters.

function [A,B,C,D,Mean0,Cov0,StateType] = paramMap(theta) A = [theta(1) 0; 0 theta(2)]; B = [theta(3) 0; 0 theta(4)]; C = [1 3]; D = 0; Mean0 = []; % MATLAB uses default initial state mean Cov0 = []; % MATLAB uses initial state covariances StateType = [0; 0]; % Two stationary states end function logprior = priorDistribution(theta) paramconstraints = [(abs(theta(1)) >= 1) (abs(theta(2)) >= 1) ... (theta(3) < 0) (theta(4) < 0)]; if(sum(paramconstraints)) logprior = -Inf; else mu0 = 0.5*ones(numel(theta),1); sigma0 = 1; p = normpdf(theta,mu0,sigma0); logprior = sum(log(p)); end end function StateDoF = posteriorDrawsStateDoF(inputstruct) StateDoF = inputstruct.StateDoF; end

## Input Arguments

`PriorMdl`

— Prior Bayesian state-space model

`bssm`

model object

`Y`

— Observed response data

numeric matrix | cell vector of numeric vectors

Observed response data, from which `simulate`

forms the
posterior distribution, specified as a numeric matrix or a cell vector of numeric vectors.

If

`PriorMdl`

is time invariant with respect to the observation equation,`Y`

is a*T*-by-*n*matrix. Each row of the matrix corresponds to a period and each column corresponds to a particular observation in the model.*T*is the sample size and*n*is the number of observations per period. The last row of`Y`

contains the latest observations.If

`PriorMdl`

is time varying with respect to the observation equation,`Y`

is a*T*-by-1 cell vector.`Y{t}`

contains an*n*-dimensional vector of observations for period_{t}*t*, where*t*= 1, ...,*T*. The corresponding dimensions of the coefficient matrices, outputs of`PriorMdl.ParamMap`

,`C{t}`

, and`D{t}`

must be consistent with the matrix in`Y{t}`

for all periods. The last cell of`Y`

contains the latest observations.

`NaN`

elements indicate missing observations. For details on how the
Kalman filter accommodates missing observations, see Algorithms.

**Data Types: **`double`

| `cell`

`params0`

— Initial values for parameters Θ

numeric vector

Initial parameter values for the parameters Θ, specified as a
`numParams`

-by-1 numeric vector. Elements of
`params0`

must correspond to the elements of the first input
arguments of `PriorMdl.ParamMap`

and
`PriorMdl.ParamDistribution`

.

**Data Types: **`double`

`Proposal`

— Metropolis-Hastings sampler proposal distribution covariance/scale matrix for parameters Θ

positive definite numeric matrix

Metropolis-Hastings sampler proposal distribution covariance/scale matrix for the
parameters Θ, up to the proportionality constant `Proportion`

,
specified as a `numParams`

-by-`numParams`

,
positive-definite numeric matrix. Elements of `Proposal`

must
correspond to elements in `params0`

.

The proposal distribution is multivariate normal or Student's *t*
with `DoF`

degrees of freedom (for details, see
`DoF`

).

**Data Types: **`double`

### Name-Value Arguments

Specify optional pairs of arguments as
`Name1=Value1,...,NameN=ValueN`

, where `Name`

is
the argument name and `Value`

is the corresponding value.
Name-value arguments must appear after other arguments, but the order of the
pairs does not matter.

*
Before R2021a, use commas to separate each name and value, and enclose*
`Name`

*in quotes.*

**Example: **`simulate(Mdl,Y,params0,Proposal,NumDraws=1e6,Thin=3,DoF=10)`

uses the multivariate *t*_{10} distribution for the
Metropolis-Hastings proposal, draws `3e6`

random vectors of parameters, and
thins the sample to reduce serial correlation by discarding every 2 draws until it retains
`1e6`

draws.

**Kalman Filter Options**

`Univariate`

— Univariate treatment of multivariate series flag

`false`

(default) | `true`

Univariate treatment of a multivariate series flag, specified as a value in this table.

Value | Description |
---|---|

`true` | Applies the univariate treatment of a multivariate series, also known as sequential filtering |

`false` | Does not apply sequential filtering |

The univariate treatment can accelerate and improve numerical stability of the Kalman filter.
However, all observation innovations must be uncorrelated. That is,
*D _{t}*

*D*' must be diagonal, where

_{t}*D*(

_{t}*t*= 1, ...,

*T*) is the output coefficient matrix

`D`

of `PriorMdl.ParamMap`

and
`PriorMdl.ParamDistribution`

.**Example: **`Univariate=true`

**Data Types: **`logical`

`SquareRoot`

— Square root filter method flag

`false`

(default) | `true`

Square root filter method flag, specified as a value in this table.

Value | Description |
---|---|

`true` | Applies the square root filter method for the Kalman filter |

`false` | Does not apply the square root filter method |

If you suspect that the eigenvalues of the filtered state or forecasted observation covariance
matrices are close to zero, then specify `SquareRoot=true`

. The square
root filter is robust to numerical issues arising from the finite precision of
calculations, but requires more computational resources.

**Example: **`SquareRoot=true`

**Data Types: **`logical`

**Posterior Sampling Options**

`NumDraws`

— Number of Metropolis-Hastings sampler draws

`1000`

(default) | positive integer

Number of Metropolis-Hastings sampler draws from the posterior distribution *Π*(*θ*|`Y`

), specified as a positive integer.

**Example: **`NumDraws=1e7`

**Data Types: **`double`

`BurnIn`

— Number of draws to remove from beginning of sample

`100`

(default) | nonnegative scalar

Number of draws to remove from the beginning of the sample to reduce transient effects, specified as a nonnegative scalar. For details on how `simulate`

reduces the full sample, see Algorithms.

**Tip**

To help you specify the appropriate burn-in period size:

Determine the extent of the transient behavior in the sample by setting the

`BurnIn`

name-value argument to`0`

.Simulate a few thousand observations by using

`simulate`

.Create trace plots.

**Example: **`BurnIn=1000`

**Data Types: **`double`

`Thin`

— Adjusted sample size multiplier

`1`

(no thinning) (default) | positive integer

Adjusted sample size multiplier, specified as a positive integer.

The actual sample size is `BurnIn`

+ `NumDraws`

`*Thin`

. After discarding the burn-in, `simulate`

discards every `Thin`

– `1`

draws, and then retains the next draw. For more details on how `simulate`

reduces the full sample, see Algorithms.

**Tip**

To reduce potential large serial correlation in the posterior sample, or to reduce the memory
consumption of the output sample, specify a large
value for `Thin`

.

**Example: **`Thin=5`

**Data Types: **`double`

`DoF`

— Proposal distribution degrees of freedom

`Inf`

(default) | positive scalar

Proposal distribution degrees of freedom for parameter updates using the Metropolis-Hastings sampler, specified as a value in this table.

Value | Metropolis-Hastings Proposal Distribution |
---|---|

Positive scalar | Multivariate t with `DoF` degrees
of freedom |

`Inf` | Multivariate normal |

The following options specify other aspects of the proposal distribution:

`Proposal`

— Required covariance/scale matrix`Proportion`

— Optional proportionality constant that scales`Proposal`

`Center`

— Optional expected value`StdDoF`

— Optional proposal standard deviation of the degrees of freedom parameter of the*t*-distributed state disturbance or observation innovation process

**Example: **`DoF=10`

**Data Types: **`double`

`Proportion`

— Proposal scale matrix proportionality constant

`1`

(default) | positive scalar

Proposal scale matrix proportionality constant, specified as a positive scalar.

**Tip**

For higher proposal acceptance rates, experiment with relatively small values for `Proportion`

.

**Example: **`Proportion=1`

**Data Types: **`double`

`Center`

— Proposal distribution center

`[]`

(default) | numeric vector

Proposal distribution center, specified as a value in this table.

Value | Description |
---|---|

`numParams` -by-1 numeric vector | `simulate` uses the independence Metropolis-Hastings sampler. `Center` is the center of the proposal distribution. |

`[]` (empty array) | `simulate` uses the random-walk Metropolis-Hastings sampler. The center of the proposal density is the current state of the Markov chain. |

**Example: **`Center=ones(10,1)`

**Data Types: **`double`

`StdDoF`

— Proposal standard deviation for degrees of freedom parameter

`0.1`

(default) | positive numeric scalar

Proposal standard deviation for the degrees of freedom parameter of the *t*-distributed state disturbance or observation innovation process, specified as a positive numeric scalar.

`StdDoF`

applies to the corresponding process when
`PriorMdl.StateDistribution.Name`

is `"t"`

or
`PriorMdl.ObservationDistribution.Name`

is `"t"`

,
and their associated degrees of freedom are estimable (the `DoF`

field
is `NaN`

or a function handle). For example, if the following
conditions hold, `StdDof`

applies only to the
*t*-distribution degrees of freedom of the state disturbance process:

`PriorMdl.StateDistribution.Name`

is`"t"`

.`PriorMdl.StateDistribution.DoF`

is`NaN`

.The limiting distribution of the observation innovations is Gaussian (

`PriorMdl.ObservationDistribution.Name`

is`"Gaussian"`

or`PriorMdl.ObservationDistribution`

is`struct("Name","t","DoF",Inf)`

.

**Example: **`StdDoF=0.5`

**Data Types: **`double`

`OutputFunction`

— Function to call after each MCMC iteration

`[]`

(default) | function handle

Function that `simulate`

calls after each MCMC iteration,
specified as a function handle. `simulate`

saves the outputs of
the specified function after each iteration and returns them in the
`Output`

output argument. You write the function, which can
perform arbitrary calculations, such as computing or plotting custom statistics at
each iteration.

Suppose

is the name of the
MATLAB`outputfcn`

^{®} function associated with specified function handle.

must have this
form.`outputfcn`

functionOutput=outputfcn(Input) ... end

`simulate`

passes
`Input`

as a structure array with
fields in this table. In other words, values in this table are available for
operations in the function.
Field | Description | Value |
---|---|---|

`Iteration` | Current iteration | Numeric scalar |

`Parameters` | Current values of the parameters θ | Numeric vector |

`LogPosteriorDensity` | Log posterior density evaluated at current parameters and conditioned on latent variables | Numeric scalar |

`StateDoF` | Current degree of freedom of the t-distributed state
disturbances | Numeric scalar |

`ObservationDoF` | Current degree of freedom of the t-distributed
observation innovation | Numeric scalar |

`StateVariance` | Current latent variance variable associated with the state disturbance | T-by-1 numeric vector |

`ObservationVariance` | Current latent variance
variable associated with the observation innovation, a
T-by-1 numeric vector | T-by-1 numeric vector |

`Mixture` | Gaussian mixture distribution hyperparameters for finite Gaussian mixture observation innovations | Structure array equal to
`PriorMdl.ObservationDistribution` |

`LatentClass` | Current latent regime variable for finite-Gaussian-mixture observation innovations | T-by-1 numeric vector |

`Intercept` | Current observation deflator factor for finite-Gaussian-mixture or skew-normal observation innovations | T-by-1 numeric vector |

`Delta` | Current shape hyperparameter δ for skew normal
observation innovations | Numeric scalar |

`A` | Coefficient A evaluated at current
parameters | Numeric matrix for a dimension-invariant coefficient or a
T-by-1 cell vector of numeric matrices for a
dimension-varying coefficient |

`B` | Coefficient B evaluated at current
parameters | Numeric matrix for a dimension-invariant coefficient or a
T-by-1 cell vector of numeric matrices for a
dimension-varying coefficient |

`C` | Coefficient C evaluated at current
parameters | Numeric matrix for a dimension-invariant coefficient or a
T-by-1 cell vector of numeric matrices for a
dimension-varying coefficient |

`D` | Coefficient D evaluated at current
parameters | Numeric matrix for a dimension-invariant coefficient or a
T-by-1 cell vector of numeric matrices for a
dimension-varying coefficient |

`States` | Current state draws obtained by simulation smoother | Numeric matrix for a dimension-invariant coefficient or a
T-by-1 cell vector of numeric matrices for a
dimension-varying coefficient |

`Y` | Observations | The value of the input `Y` |

`PreviousOutput` | Output of the previous iteration | Structure array with fields in this table |

depends on the computations
in `Output`

. However, if
`outputfcn`

is a
`Output`

*k*-by-1 homogeneous column vector, `simulate`

concatenates the outputs of all iterations and returns a
*k*-by-`NumDraws`

matrix of the same type. If
`simulate`

cannot horizontally concatenate the outputs of all
iterations, `simulate`

returns a
1-by-`NumDraws`

cell array instead, where successive cells contain
the output of corresponding iterations.

**Example: **`OutputFunction=@outputfcn`

**Data Types: **`function_handle`

## Output Arguments

`Params`

— Posterior draws

numeric matrix

Posterior draws of the state-space model parameters Θ, returned as a
`numParams`

-by-`NumDraws`

numeric matrix. Each
column is a separate draw from the distribution. Each row corresponds to the
corresponding element of `params0`

.

Because the Metropolis-Hastings sampler is a Markov chain, successive draws are correlated.

`accept`

— Proposal acceptance rate

positive scalar in [0,1]

Proposal acceptance rate, returned as a positive scalar in [0,1].

`Output`

— Custom function output

array

Custom function `OutputFunction`

output concatenated over all
MCMC iterations, returned as a matrix or cell vector. `Output`

has
`NumDraws`

columns, and the number of rows depends on the size of the
output at each iteration. The data type of the entries of `Output`

depends on the operations of the output function.

## More About

### Latent Variance Variables of *t*-Distributed Errors

To facilitate posterior sampling, multivariate Student's
*t*-distributed state disturbances and observation innovations are each
represented as a inverse-gamma scale mixture, where the inverse-gamma random variable is the
*latent variance variable*.

Explicitly, suppose the *m*-dimensional state disturbances
*u _{t}* are iid multivariate

*t*distributed with location 0, scale

*I*, and degrees of freedom

_{m}*ν*. As an inverse-gamma scale mixture

_{u}$${u}_{t}=\sqrt{{\zeta}_{t}}{\tilde{u}}_{t},$$

where:

The latent variable

*ζ*is inverse-gamma with shape and scale_{t}*ν*/2._{u}$${\tilde{u}}_{t}$$ is an

*m*-dimensional multivariate standard Gaussian random variable.

Multivariate *t*-distributed observation innovations can be similarly
decomposed.

You can access *ζ _{t}* by writing a custom output
function that returns the field for the specified error type, either

`StateVariance`

or `ObservationVariance`

. For more
details, see the `OutputFunction`

name-value argument and
`Output`

output argument.### Latent Regime Variable of Finite-Gaussian-Mixture-Distributed Observation Innovations

The *latent regime variable*
*z _{t}* is a discrete random variable that describes
the probability distribution of randomly selecting one of the

*r*regimes of the Gaussian mixture distribution. It is a latent component of a hierarchical representation of finite-Gaussian-mixture-distributed observation innovations

*ε*. The sample space of

_{t}*z*is 1,…,

_{t}*r*and

*P*(

*z*=

_{t}*j*) =

*w*, where

_{j}*w*=

_{j}`PriorMdl.Distribution.Weight`

(`j`

).Suppose univariate *ε _{t}* is a series of iid
finite Gaussian mixture distributed random variables with

*r*regimes, weight or probability vector

*w*, mean vector

*μ*, and variance vector

*σ*

^{2}. At time

*t*and given

*z*=

_{t}*j*,

*ε*has a Gaussian distribution with mean

_{t}*μ*and variance

_{j}*σ*

^{2}

_{j}. Therefore, the distribution of

*ε*is

_{t}$$p\left({\epsilon}_{t}\right)={\displaystyle \underset{{z}_{t}}{\int}{p}_{{Z}_{t}}\left(z\right){p}_{{\epsilon}_{t}|{z}_{t}}\left({\epsilon}_{t}|{z}_{t}\right)dz}={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{r}{w}_{j}\varphi \left({\mu}_{j},{\sigma}_{j}^{2};{\epsilon}_{t}\right)}.$$

`bssm`

functions use this representation to facilitate posterior
sampling from $$p\left(\theta ,x,z|y\right)$$ by the Metropolis-within-Gibbs sampler:

Condition on

*z*=_{t}*j*and*y*and use the results of the Kalman filter to sample from_{t}$$p\left(\theta ,x|y,z\right)=p\left(\theta |y,z\right)p\left(x|y,\theta ,z\right).$$

Evaluate $$p\left(\theta |y,z\right)\propto p\left(\theta \right)p(y|\theta ,z),$$ where

*p*(*θ*) is the prior specified by`PriorMdl`

and*p*(*y*|_{t}*θ*,*z*) is a result of the Kalman filter._{t}Update

*θ*using the Metropolis-Hastings sampler.Update the states according to

*p*(*x*|_{t}*θ*,*y*,_{t}*z*) by using the simulation smoother._{t}

Update

*z*from a categorical distribution according to $$p\left(z|\theta ,y,x\right).$$_{t}

You can access *z _{t}* by writing a
custom output function that returns the

`LatentClass`

field. For more
details, see the `OutputFunction`

name-value argument and
`Output`

output argument.### Observation Deflators In Finite-Gaussian-mixture and Skew-Normal Observation-Innovation Models

In general, an observation deflator factor
*d _{t}* in a state-space model is a factor in the
term subtracted from the observation

*y*to ensure the mean of the observation equation, re-expressed in terms of the deflated observation $${\tilde{y}}_{t},$$ is

_{t}*C*. This deflation helps identify the states in the observation equation for state and parameter estimation.

_{t}x_{t}`bssm`

functions deflate observations when the observation innovation
variable *ε _{t}* has one of the following distributions:

**Finite Gaussian mixture**— For a given latent class*z*=_{t}*j*,*d*=_{t}*μ*._{j}**Skew normal**— $${d}_{t}=\delta \left(\frac{\delta}{{\delta}^{2}+1}{\tilde{\epsilon}}_{t}+\frac{1}{\sqrt{{\delta}^{2}+1}}{\zeta}_{{\alpha}_{t}}\right),$$ where $${\tilde{\epsilon}}_{t}$$ are the series of residuals scaled by*D*and_{t}*ζ*is a randomly drawn value from the truncated normal distribution, with support (0,∞), derived from a Gaussian distribution with a mean of $$\frac{\delta}{{\delta}^{2}+1}{\tilde{\epsilon}}_{t}$$ and a variance of $$\frac{1}{{\delta}^{2}+1}$$ (_{ɑt}`simulate`

determines the intercept during posterior sampling).

Regardless of observation-innovation distribution,
`simulate`

deflates the observations by $$\tilde{y}={y}_{t}-{D}_{t}{d}_{t}$$. You can access *d _{t}* by writing a
custom output function that returns the

`Intercept`

field. For more
details, see the `OutputFunction`

name-value
argument and `Output`

output
argument.## Tips

Acceptance rates from

`accept`

that are relatively close to 0 or 1 indicate that the Markov chain does not sufficiently explore the posterior distribution. To obtain an appropriate acceptance rate for your data, tune the sampler by implementing one of the following procedures.Use the

`tune`

function to search for the posterior mode by numerical optimization.`tune`

returns optimized parameters and the proposal scale matrix, which is proportional to the negative Hessian matrix evaluated at the posterior mode. Pass the optimized parameters and the proposal scale to`simulate`

, and tune the proportionality constant by using the`Proportion`

name-value argument. Small values of`Proportion`

tend to increase the proposal acceptance rates of the Metropolis-Hastings sampler.Perform a multistage simulation:

Choose an initial value for the input

`Proposal`

and simulate draws from the posterior.Compute the sample covariance matrix, and pass the result to

`simulate`

as an updated value for`Proposal`

.Repeat steps 1 and 2 until

`accept`

is reasonable for your data.

## Algorithms

`simulate`

performs posterior simulation of model parameters, states, and latent variables as follows:`simulate`

generates parameter draws by the Metropolis-Hastings sampler. The posterior density is proportional to the product of the prior density`PriorMdl.ParamDistribution`

and the likelihood obtained by the Kalman filter of the state-space model`PriorMdl.ParamMap`

.`simulate`

updates states by the simulation smoother of the state-space model.`simulate`

samples the latent variance variables of state disturbance and observation innovation distributions from posterior conditional distributions. For*t*-distributed state disturbances or observation innovations, latent variables are inverse-gamma distributed.

If the input prior model

`PrioirMdl`

is a Gaussian linear state-space model and you do not specify the custom output function`OutputFunction`

,`simulate`

marginalizes the states, and the Metropolis-Hastings sampler simulates only parameters. Otherwise,`simulate`

simulates parameters Θ, states*x*, and latent variables_{t}*ζ*by the Metropolis-within-Gibbs sampler, which is more computationally intensive compared to the standard Metropolis-Hastings sampler._{t}This figure shows how

`simulate`

reduces the sample by using the values of`NumDraws`

,`Thin`

, and`BurnIn`

. Rectangles represent successive draws from the distribution.`simulate`

removes the white rectangles from the sample. The remaining`NumDraws`

black rectangles compose the sample.

## References

[1] Hastings, Wilfred K. "Monte
Carlo Sampling Methods Using Markov Chains and Their Applications."
*Biometrika* 57 (April 1970): 97–109. https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/57.1.97.

[2] Metropolis, Nicholas, Rosenbluth, Arianna. W., Rosenbluth, Marshall. N., Teller, Augusta. H., and Teller, Edward. "Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines." *The Journal of Chemical Physics* 21 (June 1953): 1087–92. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1699114.

## Version History

**Introduced in R2022a**

## See Also

### Objects

### Functions

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