mfcc

Extract mfcc, log energy, delta, and delta-delta of audio signal

Description

example

coeffs = mfcc(audioIn,fs) returns the mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) for the audio input, sampled at a frequency of fs Hz.

coeffs = mfcc(___,Name,Value) sets each property Name to the specified Value. Unspecified properties have default values..

Example: [coeffs] = mfcc(audioIn,fs,'LogEnergy','Replace') returns mel frequency cepstral coefficients for the audio input signal sampled at fs Hz. The first coefficient in the coeffs vector is replaced with the log energy value.

[coeffs,delta,deltaDelta,loc] = mfcc(___) returns the delta, delta-delta, and location of samples corresponding to each window of data.

Examples

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Compute the mel frequency cepstral coefficients of a speech signal using the mfcc function. The function returns delta, the change in coefficients, and deltaDelta, the change in delta values. The log energy value that the function computes can prepend the coefficients vector or replace the first element of the coefficients vector. This is done based on whether you set the 'LogEnergy' argument to 'Append' or 'Replace'.

Read an audio signal from the 'Counting-16-44p1-mono-15secs.wav' file using the audioread function. The mfcc function processes the entire speech data in a batch. The default DeltaWindowLength is 2. Therefore, delta is computed as the difference between the current coefficients and the previous coefficients. deltaDelta is computed as the difference between the current and the previous delta values. Based on the number of input rows, the window length, and the hop length, mfcc partitions the speech into 1551 frames and computes the cepstral features for each frame. Each row in the coeffs matrix corresponds to the log-energy value followed by the 13 mel-frequency cepstral coefficients for the corresponding frame of the speech file. The function also computes loc, the location of the last sample in each input frame.

[audioIn,fs] = audioread('Counting-16-44p1-mono-15secs.wav');
[coeffs,delta,deltaDelta,loc] = mfcc(audioIn,fs);

Read in an audio file and convert it to a frequency representation.

[audioIn,fs] = audioread("Rainbow-16-8-mono-114secs.wav");

win = hann(1024,"periodic");
S = stft(audioIn,"Window",win,"OverlapLength",512,"Centered",false);

To extract the mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, call mfcc with the frequency-domain audio. Ignore the log-energy.

coeffs = mfcc(S,fs,"LogEnergy","Ignore");

In many applications, MFCC observations are converted to summary statistics for use in classification tasks. Plot probability density functions of each of the mel-frequency cepstral coefficients to observe their distributions.

nbins = 60;
for i = 1:size(coeffs,2)
    figure
    histogram(coeffs(:,i),nbins,"Normalization","pdf")
    title(sprintf("Coefficient %d",i-1))
end

Input Arguments

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Input signal, specified as a vector, matrix, or 3-D array.

  • If audioIn is real, it is interpreted as a time-domain signal and must be a column vector or a matrix. Columns of the matrix are treated as independent audio channels.

  • If audioIn is complex, it is interpreted as a frequency-domain signal. In this case, audioIn must be an L-by-M-by-N array, where L is the number of DFT points, M is the number of individual spectrums, and N is the number of individual channels.

Data Types: single | double
Complex Number Support: Yes

Sample rate of the input signal in Hz, specified as a positive scalar.

Data Types: single | double

Name-Value Pair Arguments

Specify optional comma-separated pairs of Name,Value arguments. Name is the argument name and Value is the corresponding value. Name must appear inside quotes. You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN.

Example: [coeffs,delta,deltaDelta,loc] = mfcc(audioIn,fs,'LogEnergy','Replace','DeltaWindowLength',5) returns mel frequency cepstral coefficients for the audio input signal sampled at fs Hz. The first coefficient in the coeffs vector is replaced with the log energy value. A set of 5 cepstral coefficients is used to compute the delta and the delta-delta values.

Number of samples in analysis window used to calculate the coefficients, specified as an integer greater than or equal to 2. If unspecified, the 'WindowLength' value defaults to round(fs*0.03). Window length must be in the range [2,size(audioIn,1)].

Data Types: single | double

Number of samples which overlap or underlap between the adjacent windows. An 'OverlapLength' value that is:

  • Positive indicates an overlap between adjacent windows.

  • Negative indicates an underlap between adjacent windows.

  • Zero indicates no overlap between adjacent windows.

The 'OverlapLength' value must be set to less than the 'WindowLength'.

Here is how the overlapping frames look:

Here is how the underlapping frames look:

Data Types: single | double

Number of coefficients returned for each window of data, specified as an integer in the range [2 v], where v is the number of valid passbands.

The number of valid passbands is defined as sum(BandEdges <= floor(fs/2))-2. A passband is valid if its edges fall below fs/2, where fs is the sample rate of the input audio signal, specified as the second argument, fs.

Data Types: single | double

Band edges of the filter bank in Hz, specified as a nonnegative monotonically increasing row vector in the range [0, fs/2]. The number of band edges must be in the range [4, 160]. The mfcc function designs half-overlapped triangular filters based on BandEdges. This means that all band edges, except for the first and last, are also center frequencies of the designed bandpass filters.

By default, BandEdges is a 42-element vector, which results in a 40-band filter bank that spans approximately 133 Hz to 6864 Hz:

FiltersPassband Edges (Hz)
Filter 1[133 267]
Filter 2[200 333]
Filter 3[267 400]
Filter 4[333 467]
Filter 5[400 533]
Filter 6[467 600]
Filter 7[533 667]
Filter 8[600 733]
Filter 9[667 800]
Filter 10[733 867]
Filter 11[800 933]
Filter 12[867 999]
Filter 13[933 1071]
Filter 14[999 1147]
Filter 15[1071 1229]
Filter 16[1147 1316]
Filter 17[1229 1410]
Filter 18[1316 1510]
Filter 19[1410 1618]
Filter 20[1510 1733]
Filter 21[1618 1856]
Filter 22[1733 1988]
Filter 23[1856 2130]
Filter 24[1988 2281]
Filter 25[2130 2444]
Filter 26[2281 2618]
Filter 27[2444 2804]
Filter 28[2618 3004]
Filter 29[2804 3217]
Filter 30[3004 3446]
Filter 31[3217 3692]
Filter 32[3446 3954]
Filter 33[3692 4236]
Filter 34[3954 4537]
Filter 35[4236 4860]
Filter 36[4537 5206]
Filter 37[4860 5577
Filter 38[5206 5973]
Filter 39[5577 6399]
Filter 40[5973 6854]

The passband edges in the table are rounded for readability. For exact edges, see the default settings of the cepstralFeatureExtractor.

Data Types: single | double

Number of bins used to calculate the DFT of windowed input samples. The FFT length value must be greater than or equal to the 'WindowLength' value. The 'WindowLength' argument specifies the number of rows in the windowed input. By default, the FFT length value is set to the 'WindowLength'.

Data Types: single | double

Number of coefficients used to calculate the delta and the delta-delta values, specified as 2 or an odd integer greater than 2.

If 'DeltaWindowLength' is set to 2, the delta is given by the difference between the current coefficients and the previous coefficients,

If 'DeltaWindowLength' is set to an odd integer greater than 2, the delta values are given by the following equation:

The function uses a least-squares approximation of the local slope over a region around the current time sample. The delta cepstral values are computed by fitting the cepstral coefficients of neighboring frames (M frames before the current frame and M frames after the current frame) by a straight line. For details, see [1].

Data Types: single | double

Specify how the log energy is shown in the coefficients vector output, specified as:

  • 'Append' –– The function prepends the log energy to the coefficients vector. The length of the coefficients vector is 1 + NumCoeffs.

  • 'Replace' –– The function replaces the first coefficient with the log energy of the signal. The length of the coefficients vector is NumCoeffs.

  • 'Ignore' –– The object does not calculate or return the log energy.

Data Types: char | string

Output Arguments

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Mel frequency cepstral coefficients, returned as an L-by-M matrix or an L-by-M-by-N array, where,

  • L –– Number of frames the audio signal is partitioned into. The 'WindowLength' and 'OverlapLength' properties control this dimension.

    The number of audio frames, L, is computed using the following equation:

    • nRows –– Number of input rows.

    • winLen –– Number of samples in the analysis window, specified by the 'WindowLength' argument. If not specified, the window length is round(fs*0.03).

    • hopLen –– Number of samples in the current frame before the start of the next frame. Hop length is given by .

  • M –– Number of coefficients returned per frame. This value is determined by the NumCoeffs and LogEnergy properties.

    When the LogEnergy property is set to:

    • 'Append' –– The object prepends the log energy value to the coefficients vector. The length of the coefficients vector is 1 + NumCoeffs.

    • 'Replace' –– The object replaces the first coefficient with the log energy of the signal. The length of the coefficients vector is NumCoeffs.

    • 'Ignore' –– The object does not calculate or return the log energy.

  • N –– Number of input channels (columns).

Data Types: single | double

Change in coefficients from one frame of data to another, returned as an L-by-M matrix or an L-by-M-by-N array. The delta array is the same size and data type as the coeffs array.

If 'DeltaWindowLength' is set to 2, the delta is given by the difference between the current coefficients and the previous coefficients,

Consider the example below which computes the mel frequency coefficients for the entire speech file. The 'DeltaWindowLength' value is 2. The mfcc function partitions the speech into 1551 frames. Each row in the coeffs matrix corresponds to the log energy value followed by the 13 mel frequency cepstral coefficients for the corresponding segment of the speech file.

[audioIn,fs] = audioread('Counting-16-44p1-mono-15secs.wav');
[coeffs,delta,deltaDelta,loc] = mfcc(audioIn,fs);

The first row of the delta matrix, delta(1,:) is zeros. The second row, delta(2,:) equals the difference in coefficients for the current frame, coeffs(2,:) and the previous frame, coeffs(1,:).

If 'DeltaWindowLength' is set to an odd integer greater than 2, the delta values are given by the following equation:

The function uses a least-squares approximation of the local slope over a region around the current time sample. For details, see [1].

Data Types: single | double

Change in delta values from one frame of data to another, returned as an L-by-M matrix or an L-by-M-by-N array. The deltaDelta array is the same size and data type as the coeffs and delta arrays.

If 'DeltaWindowLength' is set to 2, the deltaDelta is given by the difference between the current delta values and the previous delta values,

Consider the example below which computes the mel frequency coefficients for the entire speech file. The 'DeltaWindowLength' value is 2.

[audioIn,fs] = audioread('Counting-16-44p1-mono-15secs.wav');
[coeffs,delta,deltaDelta,loc] = mfcc(audioIn,fs);

The first row of the deltaDelta matrix, deltaDelta(1,:) is zeros. The second row, deltaDelta(2,:) equals the difference in delta values for the current frame, delta(2,:) and the previous frame, delta(1,:).

If 'DeltaWindowLength' is set to an odd integer greater than 2, the deltaDelta values are given by the following equation:

The function uses a least-squares approximation of the local slope over a region around the current time sample. For details, see [1].

Data Types: single | double

Location of last sample in each input frame, returned as a vector. The loc vector is given by the [t1, t2, t3,…,tn] elements in the following diagram, where n corresponds to the number of frames the input is partitioned into, and tn is the last sample of the last frame.

Data Types: single | double

Algorithms

The mfcc function splits the entire data into overlapping segments. The length of each rolloff segment is determined by the 'WindowLength' argument. The length of overlap between segments is determined by the 'OverlapLength' argument.

The function computes the mel frequency cepstral coefficients, log energy values, cepstral delta, and the cepstral delta-delta values for each segment as per the algorithm described in cepstralFeatureExtractor.

References

[1] Rabiner, Lawrence R., and Ronald W. Schafer. Theory and Applications of Digital Speech Processing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2010.

Extended Capabilities

C/C++ Code Generation
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Introduced in R2018a