Yes you definitely can !! I would suggest you to design and verify your algorithms in Simulink as this is a much better platform for FPGA design as data path and control path is very similar to what is done in the FPGA. Furthermore you really simulate the time. Toolboxes you should look at are: * HDL Coder - to compile your Simulink model into synthesizable HDL code * Vision HDL Toolbox - this provides a bunch of advanced image processing IPs and key utilities to manipulate data to design faster * HDL Verifier - to verify your code either with co-simulation (ModelSim or Incisive for instance) either with FPGA-In-the-Loop (here you can connect your Intel development kit) * Computer Vision System Toolbox - this provides advanced IPs and visualization tools to explore algorithmic space and create your golden reference
You also may want to install some Hardware Support Package. MathWorks provides as free add-ons Support package for both Intel & Xilinx platform for FPGA-In-the-Loop and for targetting SoC platform. In case you are looking at SoC platform, you can also find a very powerful Zynq Support Package for Computer Vision. All of these can be installed from the Add-on manger in MATLAB.
To get started you can find here some good videos and explore the Vision HDL Toolbox documentation and examples.
I hope this helps ! Pierre