After training classifiers in Classification Learner, you can compare models based on accuracy scores, visualize results by plotting class predictions, and check performance using the confusion matrix and ROC curve.
If you use k-fold cross-validation, then the app computes the accuracy scores using the observations in the k validation folds and reports the average cross-validation error. It also makes predictions on the observations in these validation folds and computes the confusion matrix and ROC curve based on these predictions.
When you import data into the app, if you accept the defaults, the app automatically uses cross-validation. To learn more, see Choose Validation Scheme.
If you use holdout validation, the app computes the accuracy scores using the observations in the validation fold and makes predictions on these observations. The app also computes the confusion matrix and ROC curve based on these predictions.
If you use resubstitution validation, the score is the resubstitution accuracy based on all the training data, and the predictions are resubstitution predictions.
After training a model in Classification Learner, check the Models pane to see which model has the best overall accuracy in percent. The best Accuracy (Validation) score is highlighted in a box. This score is the validation accuracy. The validation accuracy score estimates a model's performance on new data compared to the training data. Use the score to help you choose the best model.
For cross-validation, the score is the accuracy on all observations, counting each observation when it was in a holdout (validation) fold.
For holdout validation, the score is the accuracy on the held-out observations.
For resubstitution validation, the score is the resubstitution accuracy against all the training data observations.
The best overall score might not be the best model for your goal. A model with a slightly lower overall accuracy might be the best classifier for your goal. For example, false positives in a particular class might be important to you. You might want to exclude some predictors where data collection is expensive or difficult.
To find out how the classifier performed in each class, examine the confusion matrix.
You can view model metrics in the Current Model Summary pane and use these metrics to assess and compare models. The Training Results metrics are calculated on the validation set. The Test Results metrics, if displayed, are calculated on an imported test set. For more information, see Evaluate Test Set Model Performance.
To copy the information in the Current Model Summary pane, right-click the pane and select Copy text.
|Accuracy||Percentage of observations that are correctly classified||Look for larger accuracy values.|
|Total cost||Total misclassification cost||Look for smaller total cost values. Make sure the accuracy value is still large.|
You can sort models based on the different model metrics. To select a metric for model sorting, use the Sort by list at the top of the Models pane.
You can also delete unwanted models listed in the Models pane. Select the model you want to delete and click the Delete selected model button in the upper right of the pane, or right-click the model and select Delete model. You cannot delete the last remaining model in the Models pane.
Use the scatter plot to examine the classifier results. To view the scatter plot for a model, select the model in the Models pane. On the Classification Learner tab, in the Plots section, click the arrow to open the gallery, and then click Scatter in the Validation Results group. After you train a classifier, the scatter plot switches from displaying the data to showing model predictions. If you are using holdout or cross-validation, then these predictions are the predictions on the held-out (validation) observations. In other words, each prediction is obtained using a model that was trained without using the corresponding observation.
To investigate your results, use the controls on the right. You can:
Choose whether to plot model predictions or the data alone.
Show or hide correct or incorrect results using the check boxes under Model predictions.
Choose features to plot using the X and Y lists under Predictors.
Visualize results by class by showing or hiding specific classes using the check boxes under Show.
Change the stacking order of the plotted classes by selecting a class under Classes and then clicking Move to Front.
Zoom in and out, or pan across the plot. To enable zooming or panning, place the mouse over the scatter plot and click the corresponding button on the toolbar that appears above the top right of the plot.
See also Investigate Features in the Scatter Plot.
To export the scatter plots you create in the app to figures, see Export Plots in Classification Learner App.
Use the confusion matrix plot to understand how the currently selected classifier performed in each class. After you train a classification model, the app automatically opens the confusion matrix for that model. If you train an "All" model, the app opens the confusion matrix for the first model only. To view the confusion matrix for another model, select the model in the Models pane. On the Classification Learner tab, in the Plots section, click the arrow to open the gallery, and then click Confusion Matrix (Validation) in the Validation Results group. The confusion matrix helps you identify the areas where the classifier has performed poorly.
When you open the plot, the rows show the true class, and the columns show the predicted class. If you are using holdout or cross-validation, then the confusion matrix is calculated using the predictions on the held-out (validation) observations. The diagonal cells show where the true class and predicted class match. If these diagonal cells are blue, the classifier has classified observations of this true class correctly.
The default view shows the number of observations in each cell.
To see how the classifier performed per class, under Plot, select the True Positive Rates (TPR), False Negative Rates (FNR) option. The TPR is the proportion of correctly classified observations per true class. The FNR is the proportion of incorrectly classified observations per true class. The plot shows summaries per true class in the last two columns on the right.
Look for areas where the classifier performed poorly by examining cells off the diagonal that display high percentages and are orange. The higher the percentage, the darker the hue of the cell color. In these orange cells, the true class and the predicted class do not match. The data points are misclassified.
In this example, which uses the
carsmall data set, the second
row from the top shows all cars with the true class Germany. The columns show the
predicted classes. Of the cars from Germany, 22.2% are correctly classified, so
22.2% is the true positive rate for correctly classified
points in this class, shown in the blue cell in the TPR
The other cars in the Germany row are misclassified: 55.6% of the cars are incorrectly classified as from Japan, and 22.2% are classified as from the USA. The false negative rate for incorrectly classified points in this class is 77.8%, shown in the orange cell in the FNR column.
If you want to see numbers of observations (cars, in this example) instead of percentages, under Plot, select Number of observations.
If false positives are important in your classification problem, plot results per predicted class (instead of true class) to investigate false discovery rates. To see results per predicted class, under Plot, select the Positive Predictive Values (PPV), False Discovery Rates (FDR) option. The PPV is the proportion of correctly classified observations per predicted class. The FDR is the proportion of incorrectly classified observations per predicted class. With this option selected, the confusion matrix now includes summary rows below the table. Positive predictive values are shown in blue for the correctly predicted points in each class, and false discovery rates are shown in orange for the incorrectly predicted points in each class.
If you decide there are too many misclassified points in the classes of interest, try changing classifier settings or feature selection to search for a better model.
To export the confusion matrix plots you create in the app to figures, see Export Plots in Classification Learner App.
To view the ROC curve after training a model, on the Classification Learner tab, in the Plots section, click the arrow to open the gallery, and then click ROC Curve (Validation) in the Validation Results group. View the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showing true and false positive rates. The ROC curve shows the true positive rate versus the false positive rate for the currently selected trained classifier. You can select different classes to plot.
The marker on the plot shows the performance of the currently selected classifier. The marker shows the values of the false positive rate (FPR) and the true positive rate (TPR) for the currently selected classifier. For example, a false positive rate (FPR) of 0.2 indicates that the current classifier assigns 20% of the observations incorrectly to the positive class. A true positive rate of 0.9 indicates that the current classifier assigns 90% of the observations correctly to the positive class.
A perfect result with no misclassified points is a right angle to the top left of the plot. A poor result that is no better than random is a line at 45 degrees. The Area Under Curve number is a measure of the overall quality of the classifier. Larger Area Under Curve values indicate better classifier performance. Compare classes and trained models to see if they perform differently in the ROC curve.
For more information, see
To export the ROC curve plots you create in the app to figures, see Export Plots in Classification Learner App.
Visualize the results of models trained in Classification Learner by using the plot options in the Plots section of the Classification Learner tab. You can rearrange the layout of the plots to compare results across multiple models: use the options in the Layout button, drag and drop plots, or select the options provided by the Document Actions arrow located to the right of the model plot tabs.
For example, after training two models in Classification Learner, display a plot for each model and change the plot layout to compare the plots by using one of these procedures:
Click Layout and select Compare models in the Plots section of the Classification Learner tab.
Click the second model tab name, and then drag and drop the second model tab to the right.
Click the Document Actions arrow located to the far right of the model
plot tabs. Select the
Tile All option and
specify a 1-by-2 layout.
Note that you can click the Hide plot options button in the top right of the plots to make more room for the plots.
After training a model in Classification Learner, you can evaluate the model performance on a test set in the app. This process allows you to check whether the validation accuracy provides a good estimate for the model performance on new data.
Import a test data set into Classification Learner.
If the test data set is in the MATLAB® workspace, then in the Testing section on the Classification Learner tab, click Test Data and select From Workspace.
If the test data set is in a file, then in the
Testing section, click Test
Data and select From File.
Select a file type in the list, such as a spreadsheet, text
file, or comma-separated values (
or select All Files to browse for other
file types such as
In the Import Test Data dialog box, select the test data set from the Test Data Set Variable list. The test set must have the same variables as the predictors imported for training and validation. The unique values in the test response variable must be a subset of the classes in the full response variable.
Compute the test set metrics.
To compute test metrics for a single model, select the trained model in the Models pane. On the Classification Learner tab, in the Testing section, click Test All and select Test Selected.
To compute test metrics for all trained models, click Test All and select Test All in the Testing section.
The app computes the test set performance of each model trained on the full data set, including training and validation data.
Compare the validation accuracy with the test accuracy.
In the Current Model Summary pane, the app displays the validation metrics and test metrics under the Training Results section and Test Results section, respectively. You can check if the validation accuracy gives a good estimate for the test accuracy.
You can also visualize the test results using plots.
Display a confusion matrix. In the Plots section on the Classification Learner tab, click the arrow to open the gallery, and then click Confusion Matrix (Test) in the Test Results group.
Display an ROC curve. In the Plots section, click the arrow to open the gallery, and then click ROC Curve (Test) in the Test Results group.
For an example, see Check Classifier Performance Using Test Set in Classification Learner App. For an example that uses test set metrics in a hyperparameter optimization workflow, see Train Classifier Using Hyperparameter Optimization in Classification Learner App.