# Get Started with Antenna Toolbox

Antenna Toolbox™ provides functions and apps for the design, analysis, and visualization of antenna elements and arrays. You can design standalone antennas and build arrays of antennas using predefined elements with parameterized geometry, arbitrary planar structures, or custom 3D structures described with STL files.

Antenna Toolbox uses electromagnetic solvers, including the method of moments (MoM), to compute impedance, current distribution, efficiency, and near-field and far-field radiation patterns. To improve the antenna design, you can use manual methods or use the optimization methods provided in the toolbox. Antenna geometry and analysis results can be visualized in 2D and 3D. The toolbox lets you integrate antenna array patterns into wireless systems for simulating beamforming and beam steering algorithms. The impedance analysis results can be used to design matching networks for integration with the RF front-end. You can install the antennas on large platforms such as vehicles or aircraft and analyze the effects of the structure on antenna performance. You can import STL and Gerber files to analyze a pre-existing structure or export them to share or manufacture your design. A site viewer enables you to visualize antenna coverage on a 3D terrain map using a variety of propagation models, including ray tracing.

## Tutorials

### Apps

**Design and Analysis Using Antenna Designer App**

This example shows how to construct, visualize, and analyze antenna elements using the **Antenna Designer** App.

**Design and Analysis Using Antenna Array Designer App**

Antenna array designer app workflow tutorial.

**Design and Analysis Using PCB Antenna Designer App**

This four-part tutorial shows how to design, validate, analyze, and export a 1-by-2 H-notch linear antenna array resonating at 4.65 GHz using the **PCB Antenna Designer** app.

### Analysis and Visualization

This example demonstrates the use of infinite array analysis to model the behavior of a single element - the unit cell embedded in the array[1] - [3].

**RF Propagation and Visualization**

Visualize coverage maps, SINR maps, and propagation paths in outdoor and indoor environments.

This example shows how to interact with a polar plot created using `polarpattern`

class.

## Antenna Concepts

### Fundamental Antenna Analysis

Input impedance, resonance, return loss, reflection coefficient, bandwidth.

Charge distribution, current distribution

Radiation pattern, E-H fields, beamwidth, polarization, axial ratio

Antenna gain, directivity and realized gain.

### Fundamental Array Analysis

Active or scan impedance, array factor and pattern multiplication, coupling matrix, isolated or embedded element pattern.

Side lobe control, beam scanning.

*Grating lobes * are the maxima of the main beam, as predicted by the pattern multiplication theorem.

### Near- and Far-Field Visualization

**Antenna Far-Field Visualization**

This example shows how to visualize the far fields for antennas and antenna arrays.

**Antenna Near-Field Visualization**

This example shows how to calculate and visualize the near-fields for antennas.

### Solvers

**Method of Moments Solver for Metal Structures**

Method of Moments computation technique for metal antennas.

**Method of Moments Solver for Metal and Dielectric Structures**

Method of Moments computation technique for metal and dielectric antennas.

**Hybrid MoM-PO Method for Metal Antennas with Large Scatterers**

Hybrid method of moments (MoM) and physical optics (PO) computational technique in Antenna Toolbox allows you to model antennas near large scatterers such as parabolic reflectors.

Physical optics (PO) solver in Antenna Toolbox allows you to solve for the RCS of an object.

Antenna Toolbox feed model.

**Fast Multipole Method for Large Structures**

Fast Multipole Method (FMM) for analysis of large structures.

### Antenna Modeling

Classify antennas based on radiation pattern or feeding mechanism

**Antenna Toolbox Coordinate System**

Rectangular and spherical coordinate system

Features not supported

Default radiation patterns of antennas and arrays