# wextend

Extend vector or matrix

## Syntax

``YEXT= wextend(TYPE,MODE,X,LEN)``
``YEXT = wextend(___,LOC)``

## Description

example

````YEXT= wextend(TYPE,MODE,X,LEN)` extends real-valued input vector or matrix `X` by length `LEN`, using the `TYPE` method and `MODE` extension. The `TYPE` specifies the dimension of the extension. The `MODE` specifies the rule to apply to fill in values in the extension.```
````YEXT = wextend(___,LOC)` also specifies the location of the extension.```

## Examples

collapse all

Extend Vector

Extend a vector using a number of different methods.

Create a vector and set the extension length to 2.

```len = 2; x = [1 2 3]```
```x = 1×3 1 2 3 ```

Perform a zero-pad extension. To verify that different forms of the input arguments are possible, perform this extension twice. The result is the same both times.

`xextzpd1 = wextend('1','zpd',x,len)`
```xextzpd1 = 1×7 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 ```
`xextzpd2 = wextend('1D','zpd',x,len,'b')`
```xextzpd2 = 1×7 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 ```

Perform a half-point symmetric extension.

`xextsym = wextend('1D','sym',x,len)`
```xextsym = 1×7 2 1 1 2 3 3 2 ```

Perform a periodic extension. Since the input vector is of odd length, wextend appends an extra example to the end before extending using the 'ppd' mode. This sample is equal to the last value on the right.

`xextper = wextend('1D','per',x,len)`
```xextper = 1×8 3 3 1 2 3 3 1 2 ```

Extend Matrix

Extend a small matrix using a number of different methods.

Create a matrix and set the extension length to 2.

```len = 2; X = [1 2 3; 4 5 6]```
```X = 2×3 1 2 3 4 5 6 ```

Perform a zero-pad extension of the array.

`Xextzpd = wextend(2,'zpd',X,len)`
```Xextzpd = 6×7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 4 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ```

Perform a half-point symmetric extension of the array.

`Xextsym = wextend('2D','sym',X,len)`
```Xextsym = 6×7 5 4 4 5 6 6 5 2 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 2 3 3 2 5 4 4 5 6 6 5 5 4 4 5 6 6 5 2 1 1 2 3 3 2 ```

Observe the effects of symmetric, antisymmetric, and smooth extensions on a `uint8` vector when values are at or near the limits of the data type's range.

Symmetric Extensions

The smallest `uint8` integer is 0, and the largest is 255. Create a vector of `uint8` integers that includes those limits.

`dataVector = uint8([0 1 2 253 254 255])`
```dataVector = 1x6 uint8 row vector 0 1 2 253 254 255 ```

Obtain whole-point and half-point symmetric extensions of the vector. Extend the vector by two values on the left and right.

`wholePointSym = wextend('1','symw',dataVector,2)`
```wholePointSym = 1x10 uint8 row vector 2 1 0 1 2 253 254 255 254 253 ```
`halfPointSym = wextend('1','symh',dataVector,2)`
```halfPointSym = 1x10 uint8 row vector 1 0 0 1 2 253 254 255 255 254 ```

Extending symmetrically never results in values outside the `uint8` range.

Antisymmetric Extensions

Create a type `double` copy of the vector, and then obtain a whole-point antisymmetric extension of the copy. The extension includes negative values and values greater than 255.

```dataVectorDouble = double(dataVector); wholePointAsymDouble = wextend('1','asymw',dataVectorDouble,2)```
```wholePointAsymDouble = 1×10 -2 -1 0 1 2 253 254 255 256 257 ```

Obtain a whole-point antisymmetric extension of the original `uint8` vector. Values outside the `uint8` range are mapped to the closest `uint8` integer, which is 0 for negative values and 255 for values greater than 255.

`wholePointAsym = wextend('1','asymw',dataVector,2)`
```wholePointAsym = 1x10 uint8 row vector 0 0 0 1 2 253 254 255 255 255 ```

Now obtain half-point antisymmetric extensions of the `double` copy and the original `uint8` vector.

`halfPointAsymDouble = wextend('1','asymh',dataVectorDouble,2)`
```halfPointAsymDouble = 1×10 -1 0 0 1 2 253 254 255 -255 -254 ```
`halfPointAsym = wextend('1','asymh',dataVector,2)`
```halfPointAsym = 1x10 uint8 row vector 0 0 0 1 2 253 254 255 0 0 ```

As with the whole-point antisymmetric extension, negative values in the extended `uint8` data are mapped to 0.

Smooth Extensions

Obtain order-0 smooth extensions of the `double` copy and the original `uint8` vector.

`smooth0Double = wextend('1','sp0',dataVectorDouble,2)`
```smooth0Double = 1×10 0 0 0 1 2 253 254 255 255 255 ```
`smooth0 = wextend('1','sp0',dataVector,2)`
```smooth0 = 1x10 uint8 row vector 0 0 0 1 2 253 254 255 255 255 ```

Results are identical. Next, obtain an order-1 smooth extension of each vector.

`smooth1Double = wextend('1','sp1',dataVectorDouble,2)`
```smooth1Double = 1×10 -2 -1 0 1 2 253 254 255 256 257 ```
`smooth1 = wextend('1','sp1',dataVector,2)`
```smooth1 = 1x10 uint8 row vector 0 0 0 1 2 253 254 255 255 255 ```

The values in the `double` result that are outside the `uint8` range are mapped to the closest `uint8` values in the `uint8` extension.

Observe the effects of symmetric, antisymmetric, and smooth extensions of `int8` data when values are at or near the limits of the data type's range.

Symmetric Extensions

The smallest `int8` integer is $-128$, and the largest is 127. Create a vector of `int8` integers that includes those limits.

`dataVector = int8([-128 -127 -126 125 126 127])`
```dataVector = 1x6 int8 row vector -128 -127 -126 125 126 127 ```

Obtain whole-point and half-point symmetric extensions of the data. Extend the vector by two values on the left and right.

`wholePointSym = wextend('1','symw',dataVector,2)`
```wholePointSym = 1x10 int8 row vector -126 -127 -128 -127 -126 125 126 127 126 125 ```
`halfPointSym = wextend('1','symh',dataVector,2)`
```halfPointSym = 1x10 int8 row vector -127 -128 -128 -127 -126 125 126 127 127 126 ```

Extending symmetrically never results in values outside the `int8` range.

Antisymmetric Extensions

Create a type `double` copy of the vector, and then obtain a whole-point antisymmetric extension of the copy. The extension includes negative values less than $-128$ and values greater than 127.

```dataVectorDouble = double(dataVector); wholePointsAsymDouble = wextend('1','asymw',dataVectorDouble,2)```
```wholePointsAsymDouble = 1×10 -130 -129 -128 -127 -126 125 126 127 128 129 ```

Obtain a whole-point antisymmetric extension of the original `int8` vector. Values outside the `int8` range are mapped to the closest `int8` integer, which is $-128$ for values less than $-128$ and 127 for values greater than 127.

`wholePointAsym = wextend('1','asymw',dataVector,2)`
```wholePointAsym = 1x10 int8 row vector -128 -128 -128 -127 -126 125 126 127 127 127 ```

Now obtain half-point antisymmetric extensions of the `double` copy and the original `int8` vector.

`halfPointAsymDouble = wextend('1','asymh',dataVectorDouble,2)`
```halfPointAsymDouble = 1×10 127 128 -128 -127 -126 125 126 127 -127 -126 ```
`halfPointAsym = wextend('1','asymh',dataVector,2)`
```halfPointAsym = 1x10 int8 row vector 127 127 -128 -127 -126 125 126 127 -127 -126 ```

In the `double` result, the first value is 127, which can be represented as an `int8` integer. The second value is 128, which cannot be represented as an `int8` integer. Therefore, in the `int8` result, it is being mapped to 127. The remaining values in the type `double` result can all be represented as `int8` integers.

Smooth Extensions

Obtain order-0 smooth extensions of the `double` copy and the original `int8` vector.

`smooth0Double = wextend('1','sp0',dataVectorDouble,2)`
```smooth0Double = 1×10 -128 -128 -128 -127 -126 125 126 127 127 127 ```
`smooth0 = wextend('1','sp0',dataVector,2)`
```smooth0 = 1x10 int8 row vector -128 -128 -128 -127 -126 125 126 127 127 127 ```

The results are identical. Now obtain an order-1 smooth extension of each vector.

`smooth1Double = wextend('1','sp1',dataVectorDouble,2)`
```smooth1Double = 1×10 -130 -129 -128 -127 -126 125 126 127 128 129 ```
`smooth1 = wextend('1','sp1',dataVector,2)`
```smooth1 = 1x10 int8 row vector -128 -128 -128 -127 -126 125 126 127 127 127 ```

The values in the `double` result outside the `int8` range are mapped to the closest `int8` values in the `int8` extension.

## Input Arguments

collapse all

Extension method used on the input, specified as one of the values listed here.

`TYPE`Description
`1``'1'``'1d'`, or `'1D'`

1-D extension

`2``'2'``'2d'`, or `'2D'`

2-D extension

`'ar'` or `'addrow'`

`'ac'` or `'addcol'`

Data Types: `double` | `char`

Specific extension method to use to extend the input, specified as one of the values listed here. For more information, see `dwtmode`.

`MODE`

Description

`'zpd'`

Zero extension

`'sp0'`

Smooth extension of order 0

`'spd'` (or``` 'sp1'```)

Smooth extension of order 1

`'sym'` or `'symh'`

Symmetric padding (half point): boundary value symmetric replication

`'symw'`

Symmetric padding (whole point): boundary value symmetric replication

`'asym'` or `'asymh'`

Antisymmetric padding (half point): boundary value antisymmetric replication

`'asymw'`

Antisymmetric padding (whole point): boundary value antisymmetric replication

`'ppd'`

Periodized extension (1)

`'per'`

Periodized extension (2)

If the signal length is odd, `wextend` appends on the right a copy of the last value, and performs the extension using the `'ppd'` mode. Otherwise, `'per'` reduces to `'ppd'`. This rule also applies to images.

Note

The extension modes `'sp0'` and `'spd'` (or `'sp1'`) cast the data internally to double precision before performing the extension. For integer data types, `wextend` warns if one of the following occurs.

• The conversion to double causes a loss of precision.

• The requested extension results in integers beyond the range where double precision numbers can represent consecutive integers exactly.

Data Types: `char`

Input data, specified as a real-valued vector or matrix.

Data Types: `single` | `double` | `int8` | `int16` | `int32` | `int64` | `uint8` | `uint16` | `uint32` | `uint64`

Length of extension, specified as a nonnegative integer or two-element vector of nonnegative integers. You can extend a matrix by expressing `LEN` as `[LROW,LCOL]`, where `LROW` is the number of rows to add and `LCOL` is the number of columns to add. You can perform a 2-D extension of a matrix by the same amount in both directions by specifying `LEN` as single integer.

An extension of length 0 is equivalent to the null extension.

Example: ```wextend('2D','sym',[1 2 3 4;5 6 7 8],[2 0])``` extends only two rows up and two rows down.

Location of extension, specified as one or a pair of the following:

• `'l'` — Extension left

• `'u'` — Extension up

• `'r'` — Extension right

• `'d'` — Extension down

• `'b'` — Extension on both sides

• `'n'` — Null extension

The valid and default values for `LOC`, and the behavior of `LEN`, depend on the specified `TYPE`.

TYPELOC
`1, '1', 1d'` or `'1D'``'l'`, `'u'`, `'r'`, `'d'`, `'b'`, or `'n'`

Example: `wextend('1D','zpd',X,3,'r')` extends input vector `X` three elements to the right.

Default: `'b'`

`LEN` is the length of the extension.
`2, '2', '2d'` or `'2D'`` [LOCROW,LOCCOL]`, where `LOCROW` and `LOCCOL` are 1-D extension locations or `'n'` (none).

Example: ```wextend('2D','zpd',X,[2 3],'ub')``` extends input vector or matrix `X` two rows up and three columns on both sides.

Default: `'bb'`

`LEN`, specified as `[LROW,LCOL]`, is the number of rows and columns to add.
`'ar'` or `'addrow'``'l'`, `'u'`, `'r'`, `'d'`, `'b'`, or `'n'`

Example: `wextend('addrow','zpd',X,4,'d')` extends input vector or matrix `X` four rows down.

Default: `'b'`

`LEN` is the number of rows to add.
`'ac'` or `'addcol'``'l'`, `'u'`, `'r'`, `'d'`, `'b'`, or `'n'`

Example: `wextend('addcol','zpd',X,1,'l')` extends input vector or matrix `X` one column to the left.

Default: `'b'`

`LEN` is the number of columns to add.

## Tips

For most wavelet applications, either a periodic extension or symmetric extension works fine.

## Algorithms

When a value is outside the input data type's range, `wextend` maps it to the closest value of the input data type. For examples of data being extended beyond a data type's range, see Extend uint8 Data Beyond Range Limits and Extend int8 Data Beyond Range Limits.

 Strang, G., and T. Nguyen. Wavelets and Filter Banks. Wellesley, MA: Wellesley-Cambridge Press, 1996.