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raytrace

Display or compute RF propagation rays

Description

The raytrace function plots or computes propagation paths by using ray tracing with surface geometry defined by the 'Map' property. Each plotted propagation path is color-coded according to the received power (dBm) or path loss (dB) along the path. The ray tracing analysis includes surface reflections but does not include effects from diffraction, refraction, or scattering. Operational frequency for this function is from 100 MHz to 100 GHz. For more information, see Choose a Propagation Model.

example

raytrace(tx,rx) displays the propagation paths from the transmitter site (tx) to the receiver site (rx) in the current Site Viewer by using the shooting and bouncing rays (SBR) method with up to two reflections.

example

raytrace(tx,rx,propmodel) displays the propagation paths from the transmitter site (tx) to the receiver site (rx) based on the specified propagation model. To input building and terrain materials to calculate path loss, create a 'raytracing' propagation model using the propagationModel function and set the properties to specify building materials.

raytrace(___,Name,Value) specifies options using one or more name-value arguments in addition to the input arguments in previous syntaxes.

rays = raytrace(___) returns the propagation paths in rays.

Examples

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Show reflected propagation paths in Chicago using the ray tracing analysis with the SBR method

Launch Site Viewer with buildings in Chicago. For more information about the osm file, see [1].

viewer = siteviewer("Buildings","chicago.osm");

Create a transmitter site on a building and a receiver site near another building.

tx = txsite("Latitude",41.8800, ...
    "Longitude",-87.6295, ...
    "TransmitterFrequency",2.5e9);
show(tx)
rx = rxsite("Latitude",41.8813452, ...
    "Longitude",-87.629771, ...
    "AntennaHeight",30);
show(rx)

Show obstruction to line-of-sight.

los(tx,rx)

Show reflected propagation path using ray tracing with up to two reflections.

raytrace(tx,rx)

Appendix

[1] The osm file is downloaded from https://www.openstreetmap.org, which provides access to crowd-sourced map data all over the world. The data is licensed under the Open Data Commons Open Database License (ODbL), https://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/.

Launch Site Viewer with buildings in Chicago. For more information about the osm file, see [1].

viewer = siteviewer("Buildings","chicago.osm");

Create a transmitter site on a building.

tx = txsite("Latitude",41.8800, ...
    "Longitude",-87.6295, ...
    "TransmitterFrequency",2.5e9);

Create a receiver site near another building.

rx = rxsite("Latitude",41.881352, ...
    "Longitude",-87.629771, ...
    "AntennaHeight",30);

Compute the signal strength by using a ray tracing propagation model. By default, the ray tracing model uses the SBR method, and performs line-of-sight and two-reflection analysis.

pm = propagationModel("raytracing");
ssTwoReflections = sigstrength(rx,tx,pm)
ssTwoReflections = -54.3015

Plot the propagation paths for SBR with up to two reflections.

raytrace(tx,rx,pm) 

Compute signal strength with analysis up to two reflections, where total received power is the cumulative power of all propagation paths

pm.MaxNumReflections = 5;
ssFiveReflections = sigstrength(rx,tx,pm)
ssFiveReflections = -53.3889

Observe the effect of material by replacing default concrete material with perfect reflector.

pm.BuildingsMaterial = "perfect-reflector";
ssPerfect = sigstrength(rx,tx,pm)
ssPerfect = -39.6703

Plot the propagation paths for SBR with up to five reflections.

raytrace(tx,rx,pm)

Appendix

[1] The osm file is downloaded from https://www.openstreetmap.org, which provides access to crowd-sourced map data all over the world. The data is licensed under the Open Data Commons Open Database License (ODbL), https://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/.

Calculate path loss due to material reflection and atmosphere in Hong Kong. Configure a ray tracing model to use the shooting and bouncing rays (SBR) method with up to 5 reflections.

Launch Site Viewer with buildings in Hong Kong. For more information about the osm file, see [1].

viewer = siteviewer("Buildings","hongkong.osm");

Define transmitter and receiver sites to model a small cell scenario in a dense urban environment.

tx = txsite("Name","Small cell transmitter", ...
    "Latitude",22.2789, ...
    "Longitude",114.1625, ...
    "AntennaHeight",10, ...
    "TransmitterPower",5, ...
    "TransmitterFrequency",28e9);
rx = rxsite("Name","Small cell receiver", ...
    "Latitude",22.2799, ...
    "Longitude",114.1617, ...
    "AntennaHeight",1);

Create a ray tracing propagation model for perfect reflection with up to 5 reflections. Specify the ray tracing method as shooting and bouncing rays (SBR).

pm = propagationModel("raytracing", ...
    "Method","sbr", ...
    "AngularSeparation","low", ...
    "MaxNumReflections",5, ...
    "BuildingsMaterial","perfect-reflector", ...
    "TerrainMaterial","perfect-reflector");

Visualize the propagation paths and compute the corresponding path losses.

raytrace(tx,rx,pm,"Type","pathloss")
raysPerfect = raytrace(tx,rx,pm,"Type","pathloss");
plPerfect = [raysPerfect{1}.PathLoss]
plPerfect = 1×13

  104.2656  103.5720  112.0095  109.3152  111.2814  112.0011  112.4436  108.1516  111.2827  111.3898  117.7513  116.5894  117.7638

Recompute and visualize the propagation paths after configuring material reflection loss by setting building and terrain material types in the propagation model. The first value is unchanged because it corresponds to the line-of-sight propagation path.

pm.BuildingsMaterial = "glass";
pm.TerrainMaterial = "concrete";
raytrace(tx,rx,pm,"Type","pathloss")
raysMtrls = raytrace(tx,rx,pm,"Type","pathloss");
plMtrls = [raysMtrls{1}.PathLoss]
plMtrls = 1×13

  104.2656  106.1294  119.2408  121.2477  122.4096  121.5561  126.9482  124.1615  122.8182  127.5476  139.0676  140.5833  153.3285

Recompute and visualize the propagation paths with atmospheric loss by adding atmospheric propagation models.

pm = pm + propagationModel("rain") + propagationModel("gas");
raytrace(tx,rx,pm,"Type","pathloss")
raysAtmospheric = raytrace(tx,rx,pm,"Type","pathloss");
plAtmospheric = [raysAtmospheric{1}.PathLoss]
plAtmospheric = 1×13

  105.3245  107.1891  121.8260  123.1432  124.9966  124.1453  129.6661  126.0578  125.4086  130.2655  143.0507  144.5666  157.3145

Appendix

[1] The osm file is downloaded from https://www.openstreetmap.org, which provides access to crowd-sourced map data all over the world. The data is licensed under the Open Data Commons Open Database License (ODbL), https://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/.

This example shows how to:

  • Scale an STL file so that the model uses units of meters.

  • View the scaled model in Site Viewer.

  • Use ray tracing to calculate and display propagation paths from a transmitter to a receiver.

While Cartesian txsite and rxsite objects require position coordinates in meters, STL files might use other units. If your STL file does not use meters, you must scale the model before importing it into Site Viewer.

Read an STL file as a triangulation object. The file models a small conference room with one table and four chairs.

TR = stlread("conferenceroom.stl");

Scale the coordinates and create a new triangulation object. For this example, assume that the conversion factor from the STL units to meters is 0.9.

scale = 0.9;
scaledPts = TR.Points * scale;
TR_scaled = triangulation(TR.ConnectivityList,scaledPts);

View the new triangulation object using Site Viewer. Alternatively, you can save the new triangulation object as an STL file by using the stlwrite function.

viewer = siteviewer("SceneModel",TR_scaled);

Create and display a transmitter site close to the wall and a receiver site under the table. Specify the position using Cartesian coordinates in meters.

tx = txsite("cartesian", ...
    "AntennaPosition",[-1.25; -1.25; 1.9], ...
    "TransmitterFrequency",2.8e9);
show(tx,"ShowAntennaHeight",false) 

rx = rxsite("cartesian", ...
    "AntennaPosition",[0.3; 0.2; 0.5]);
show(rx,"ShowAntennaHeight",false)

Pan by left-clicking, zoom by right-clicking or by using the scroll wheel, and rotate the visualization by clicking the middle button and dragging or by pressing Ctrl and left-clicking and dragging.

Create a ray tracing propagation model for Cartesian coordinates. Specify the ray tracing method as shooting and bouncing rays (SBR). Calculate rays that have up to 2 reflections. Set the surface material to wood.

pm = propagationModel("raytracing", ...
    "CoordinateSystem","cartesian", ...
    "Method","sbr", ...
    "MaxNumReflections",2, ...
    "SurfaceMaterial","wood"); 

Calculate the propagation paths and return the result as a comm.Ray object. Extract and plot the rays.

r = raytrace(tx,rx,pm);
r = r{1};
plot(r)

View information about a ray by clicking on it.

Input Arguments

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Transmitter site, specified as a txsite object or an array of txsite objects. If the receiver sites are specified as arrays, then the propagation paths are plotted from each transmitter to each receiver site.

Receiver site, specified as a rxsite object or an array of rxsite objects. If the transmitter sites are specified as arrays, then the propagation paths are plotted from each transmitter to each receiver site.

Propagation model, specified as a character vector, a string, or a ray tracing propagation model created with the propagationModel function. The default is 'raytracing', a ray tracing propagation model that uses the SBR method with the maximum number of reflections set to 2.

To specify a ray tracing propagation model that calculates different numbers of reflections, create a RayTracing object by using the propagationModel function and set the MaxNumReflections property.

Name-Value Arguments

Specify optional pairs of arguments as Name1=Value1,...,NameN=ValueN, where Name is the argument name and Value is the corresponding value. Name-value arguments must appear after other arguments, but the order of the pairs does not matter.

Before R2021a, use commas to separate each name and value, and enclose Name in quotes.

Example: 'Type','power'

Type of quantity to plot, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Type' and 'power' in dBm or 'pathloss' in dB.

When you specify 'power', each path is color-coded according to the received power along the path. When you specify 'pathloss', each path is color-coded according to the path loss along the path.

Friis equation is used to calculate the received power:

Prx=Ptx+Gtx+GrxLLtxLrx

where:

  • Prx is the received power along the path.

  • Ptx is the transmit power defined in tx.TransmitterPower.

  • Gtx is the antenna gain of tx in the direction of the angle-of-departure (AoD).

  • Grx is the antenna gain of rx in the direction of the angle-of-arrival (AoA).

  • L is the path loss calculated along the path.

  • Ltx is the system loss of the transmitter defined in tx.SystemLoss.

  • Lrx is the system loss of the receiver defined in rx.SystemLoss.

Data Types: char

Type of propagation model for ray tracing analysis, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'PropagationModel' and 'raytracing' or a ray tracing propagation model created with the propagationModel function. If you specify 'raytracing', then the raytrace function calculates propagation paths by using the SBR method with up to 2 reflections for the ray tracing propagation model object configuration

To perform ray tracing analysis using the image method instead, specify a propagation model created using the propagationModel function. This code shows how to create a propagation model that uses the image method.

pm = propagationModel('raytracing','Method','image');

For information about differences between the image and SBR methods, see Choose a Propagation Model.

Data Types: char

Color limits for colormap, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'ColorLimits' and a two-element numeric row vector of the form [min max]. The units and default values of the color limits depend on the value of the 'Type' parameter:

  • 'power'– Units are in dBm, and the default value is [-120 -5].

  • 'pathloss'– Units are in dB, and the default value is [45 160].

The color limits indicate the values that map to the first and last colors in the colormap. Propagation paths with values below the minimum color limit are not plotted.

Data Types: double

Colormap for coloring propagation paths, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Colormap' and a predefined color map name or an M-by-3 array of RGB (red, blue, green) triplets that define M individual colors.

Data Types: char | double

Show color legend on map, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'ShowLegend' and true or false.

Data Types: logical

Map for visualization or surface data, specified as a siteviewer object, a triangulation object, a string scalar, or a character vector. Valid and default values depend on the coordinate system.

Coordinate SystemValid map valuesDefault map value
"geographic"
  • A siteviewer objecta.

  • A terrain name, if the function is called with an output argument. Valid terrain names are "none", "gmted2010", or the name of the custom terrain data added using addCustomTerrain.

  • The current siteviewer object or a new siteviewer object if none are open.

  • "gmted2010", if the function is called with an output.

"cartesian"
  • "none".

  • A siteviewer object.

  • The name of an STL file.

  • A triangulation object.

  • "none".

a Alignment of boundaries and region labels are a presentation of the feature provided by the data vendors and do not imply endorsement by MathWorks®.

Data Types: char | string

Output Arguments

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Ray configuration, returned as a M-by-N cell array where M is the number of transmitter sites and N is the number of receiver sites. Each cell element is a row vector of comm.Ray objects representing all the rays found between the corresponding transmitter site and receiver site. Within each row vector, the comm.Ray objects with the same transmitter to receiver interactions types are grouped together, groups are sorted alphabetically and then by ascending number of reflections. In each group, the rays are ordered by increasing propagation distance.

Version History

Introduced in R2019b

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