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6DOF (Euler Angles)

Implement Euler angle representation of six-degrees-of-freedom equations of motion

Library

Equations of Motion/6DOF

Description

The 6DOF (Euler Angles) block considers the rotation of a body-fixed coordinate frame (Xb, Yb, Zb) about a flat Earth reference frame (Xe, Ye, Ze). The origin of the body-fixed coordinate frame is the center of gravity of the body, and the body is assumed to be rigid, an assumption that eliminates the need to consider the forces acting between individual elements of mass. The flat Earth reference frame is considered inertial, an excellent approximation that allows the forces due to the Earth's motion relative to the “fixed stars” to be neglected.

The translational motion of the body-fixed coordinate frame is given below, where the applied forces [Fx Fy Fz]T are in the body-fixed frame, and the mass of the body m is assumed constant.

F¯b=[FxFyFz]=m(V¯˙b+ω¯×V¯b)Abb=[u˙bv˙bw˙b]=1mF¯bω¯×V¯bAbe=1mFbV¯b=[ubvbwb],ω¯=[pqr]

Abb is the acceleration of the body with respect to the body reference frame. Abi is the acceleration of the body with respect to an inertial reference frame.

The rotational dynamics of the body-fixed frame are given below, where the applied moments are [L M N]T, and the inertia tensor I is with respect to the origin O.

M¯B=[LMN]=Iω¯˙+ω¯×(Iω¯)I=[IxxIxyIxzIyxIyyIyzIzxIzyIzz]

The relationship between the body-fixed angular velocity vector, [p q r]T, and the rate of change of the Euler angles, [ϕ˙θ˙ψ˙]T, can be determined by resolving the Euler rates into the body-fixed coordinate frame.

[pqr]=[ϕ˙00]+[1000cosϕsinϕ0sinϕcosϕ][0θ˙0]+[1000cosϕsinϕ0sinϕcosϕ][cosθ0sinθ010sinθ0cosθ][00ψ˙]J1[ϕ˙θ˙ψ˙]

Inverting J then gives the required relationship to determine the Euler rate vector.[ϕ˙θ˙ψ˙]=J[pqr]=[1(sinϕtanθ)(cosϕtanθ)0cosϕsinϕ0sinϕcosθcosϕcosθ][pqr]

Parameters

Main

Units

Specifies the input and output units:

Units

Forces

Moment

Acceleration

Velocity

Position

Mass

Inertia

Metric (MKS)

Newton

Newton meter

Meters per second squared

Meters per second

Meters

Kilogram

Kilogram meter squared

English (Velocity in ft/s)

Pound

Foot pound

Feet per second squared

Feet per second

Feet

Slug

Slug foot squared

English (Velocity in kts)

Pound

Foot pound

Feet per second squared

Knots

Feet

Slug

Slug foot squared

Mass Type

Select the type of mass to use:

Fixed

Mass is constant throughout the simulation.

Simple Variable

Mass and inertia vary linearly as a function of mass rate.

Custom Variable

Mass and inertia variations are customizable.

The Fixed selection conforms to the previously described equations of motion.

Representation

Select the representation to use:

Euler Angles

Use Euler angles within equations of motion.

Quaternion

Use quaternions within equations of motion.

The Euler Angles selection conforms to the previously described equations of motion.

Initial position in inertial axes

The three-element vector for the initial location of the body in the flat Earth reference frame.

Initial velocity in body axes

The three-element vector for the initial velocity in the body-fixed coordinate frame.

Initial Euler rotation

The three-element vector for the initial Euler rotation angles [roll, pitch, yaw], in radians.

Initial body rotation rates

The three-element vector for the initial body-fixed angular rates, in radians per second.

Initial Mass

The mass of the rigid body.

Inertia

The 3-by-3 inertia tensor matrix I.

Include inertial acceleration

Select this check box to enable an additional output port for the accelerations in body-fixed axes with respect to the inertial frame. You typically connect this signal to the accelerometer.

State Attributes

Assign unique name to each state. You can use state names instead of block paths during linearization.

  • To assign a name to a single state, enter a unique name between quotes, for example, 'velocity'.

  • To assign names to multiple states, enter a comma-delimited list surrounded by braces, for example, {'a', 'b', 'c'}. Each name must be unique.

  • If a parameter is empty (' '), no name assignment occurs.

  • The state names apply only to the selected block with the name parameter.

  • The number of states must divide evenly among the number of state names.

  • You can specify fewer names than states, but you cannot specify more names than states.

    For example, you can specify two names in a system with four states. The first name applies to the first two states and the second name to the last two states.

  • To assign state names with a variable in the MATLAB® workspace, enter the variable without quotes. A variable can be a character vector, cell array, or structure.

Position: e.g., {'Xe', 'Ye', 'Ze'}

Specify position state names.

Default value is ''.

Velocity: e.g., {'U', 'v', 'w'}

Specify velocity state names.

Default value is ''.

Euler rotation angles: e.g., {'phi', 'theta', 'psi'}

Specify Euler rotation angle state names. This parameter appears if the Representation parameter is set to Euler Angles.

Default value is ''.

Body rotation rates: e.g., {'p', 'q', 'r'}

Specify body rotation rate state names.

Default value is ''.

Inputs and Outputs

InputDimension TypeDescription

First

VectorContains the three applied forces in body-fixed coordinate frame.

Second

VectorContains the three applied moments in body-fixed coordinate frame.
OutputDimension TypeDescription

First

Three-element vectorContains the velocity in the flat Earth reference frame.

Second

Three-element vectorContains the position in the flat Earth reference frame.

Third

Three-element vectorContains the Euler rotation angles [roll, pitch, yaw], within ±pi, in radians.

Fourth

3-by-3 matrixContains the coordinate transformation from flat Earth axes to body-fixed axes.

Fifth

Three-element vectorContains the velocity in the body-fixed frame.

Sixth

Three-element vectorContains the angular rates in body-fixed axes, in radians per second.

Seventh

Three-element vectorContains the angular accelerations in body-fixed axes, in radians per second squared.

Eighth

Three-element vectorContains the accelerations in body-fixed axes with respect to body frame.

Ninth (Optional)

Three-element vectorContains the accelerations in body-fixed axes with respect to inertial frame (flat Earth). You typically connect this signal to the accelerometer.

Assumptions and Limitations

The block assumes that the applied forces are acting at the center of gravity of the body, and that the mass and inertia are constant.

Examples

See the aeroblk_six_dof airframe in aeroblk_HL20 and asbhl20 for examples of this block.

Reference

Stevens, Brian, and Frank Lewis, Aircraft Control and Simulation, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2003.

Zipfel, Peter H., Modeling and Simulation of Aerospace Vehicle Dynamics. Second Edition, AIAA Education Series, 2007.

Introduced in R2006a