# Transmitter

Amplify and transmit signal

**Libraries:**

Phased Array System Toolbox /
Transmitters and Receivers

## Description

The Transmitter block amplifies and transmits waveform pulses. The transmitter can either maintain coherence between pulses or insert phase noise.

## Examples

### Simulating a Bistatic Radar with Two Targets

Simulate a bistatic radar system with two targets. The transmitter and the receiver of a bistatic radar are not co-located and move along different paths.

## Ports

### Input

**Input 1** — Input waveform

complex-valued matrix

Input waveform, specified as a complex-valued matrix.

The size of the first dimension of the input matrix can vary to simulate a changing signal length. A size change can occur, for example, in the case of a pulse waveform with variable pulse repetition frequency.

**Data Types: **`double`

### Output

**Y** — Transmitted waveform

complex-valued matrix

Transmitted signal, output as a complex-value matrix.
`Y`

is the amplified input waveform where the
amplification is based on the characteristics of the transmitter, such
as the peak power and the gain.

**Data Types: **`double`

**TR** — Transmitter on-off status

0 | 1

Transmitter on-off status, output as a 0 or 1. A 1 indicates that the transmitter is on, and a 0 indicates that the transmitter is off.

#### Dependencies

To enable this port, select the **Enable transmitter
status output** check box.

**Data Types: **`double`

**Ph** — Phase noise

scalar

Phase noise, output as a scalar.

#### Dependencies

To enable this port, select the **Enable pulse phase noise
output** check box.

**Data Types: **`double`

## Parameters

**Main**

**Peak power (W)** — Peak power

`5000`

(default) | positive scalar

Peak power, specified as a positive scalar. Units are in Watts.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

**Gain method** — Gain method

`Linear`

(default) | `Cubic polynomial`

| `Lookup table`

Method for applying gain to the transmitted signal, specified as
`Linear`

, ```
Cubic
polynomial
```

or `Lookup table`

.

When set to

`Linear`

, linear gain is applied.When set to

`Cubic polynomial`

, a cubic polynomial model is used to apply non-linear gain.When set to

`Lookup table`

, a lookup table is defined to directly specify output power and phase shift as a function of input power.

**Data Types: **`char`

| `string`

**Gain (dB)** — Linear transmitter gain

`20`

(default) | real scalar | length-*N* vector of real values

Linear transmitter gain, specified as a real scalar or
length-*N* vector of real values. *N*
is the number of channels. If the **Gain (dB)** parameter
is a scalar, the same value is applied to all channels. Units are in
dB.

#### Dependencies

To enable this property, set the **Gain method**
parameter to `Linear`

or ```
Cubic
polynomial
```

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

**Output IP3 (dBm)** — Output IP3

`Inf`

(default) | scalar | length-*N* vector of real values

Output IP3, specified as a scalar or length-*N* vector of
real values. *N* is the number of channels. OIP3 expresses
the non-linearity of the transmitter or receiver. OIP is also called the
third-order intercept point. If OIP3 is a scalar, the same value is applied
to all channels. See Nonlinearities and Noise in Idealized Baseband Amplifier Block (RF Blockset) for a
detailed discussion of OIP3. Units are in dBm.

#### Dependencies

To enable this property, set the **Gain method**
parameter to `Cubic polynomial`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

**Lookup table** — Lookup table

```
[-25, 5, -1; -10, 20, -2; 0, 27, 5; 5, 28,
12]
```

(default) | *M*-by-*N* real-valued matrix | *M*-by-*N* real-valued matrix

AM/AM-AM/PM lookup table, specified as a
3-by-*M*-by-*N* real-valued array. The
lookup table specifies amplifier power characteristics. *M*
is the number of table entries and *N* is the number of
channels. Each row in the table expresses the relationship between output
power or phase change as a function of input power. Specify AM/AM (in dB/dB)
and AM/PM (in deg/dB) characteristics in a
*[Pin(dBm),Pout(dBm),Phase
shift(degrees)]*-by-*M* matrix or
*[Pin(dBm),Pout(dBm),Phase
shift(degrees)]*-by-*M*-by-*N*
array. Use the table to linear interpolate or extrapolate power values. The
column 1 input power must increase monotonically. There must be at least 3
rows in the table. The power output can be written as:

$${u}_{out}={T}_{AM-AM}(\left|u\right|){e}^{{T}_{AM-PM}(\left|u\right|+\angle u)}$$

#### Dependencies

To enable this property, set the **Gain method**
parameter to `Lookup table`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

**Loss factor (dB)** — Transmit loss factor

`0`

(default) | nonnegative scalar | length-*N* vector of nonnegative values

Transmit loss factor, specified as a nonnegative scalar or
length-*N* vector of nonnegative values.
*N* is the number of channels. If **Loss
factor (dB) ** parameter is a scalar, the same value is
applied to all channels.

#### Dependencies

To enable this property, set the **Gain method**
parameter to `Linear`

.

**Data Types: **`double`

| `single`

**Enable transmitter status output** — Enable transmitter status output

off (default) | on

Select this check box to output the transmitter-in-use status for each
output sample from the output port **TR**.

**Data Types: **`Boolean`

**Preserve coherence among pulses** — Preserve coherence among pulses

on (default) | off

Select this check box to preserve coherence among transmitted pulses.

When you select this check box, the transmitter does not add random phase to the output pulse.

When you deselect this check box, the transmitter adds random phase noise to each transmitted pulse. The random phase noise is introduced by multiplying the pulse value by

*e*where^{jϕ}*ϕ*is a uniformly-distributed random variable on the interval [0,2π].

**Data Types: **`Boolean`

**Enable pulse phase noise output** — Enable pulse phase noise output

off (default) | on

Select this check box to create an output port, **Ph**, with the
output sample random phase noise introduced if **Preserve coherence
among pulses** is cleared. The output port can be directed to a
receiver to simulate coherent-on-receive systems.

#### Dependencies

This check box appears only when **Preserve coherence among
pulses** is not selected.

**Data Types: **`Boolean`

**Simulate using** — Block simulation method

`Interpreted Execution`

(default) | `Code Generation`

Block simulation, specified as `Interpreted Execution`

or
`Code Generation`

. If you want your block to use the
MATLAB^{®} interpreter, choose `Interpreted Execution`

. If
you want your block to run as compiled code, choose ```
Code
Generation
```

. Compiled code requires time to compile but usually runs
faster.

Interpreted execution is useful when you are developing and tuning a model. The block
runs the underlying System object™ in MATLAB. You can change and execute your model quickly. When you are satisfied
with your results, you can then run the block using ```
Code
Generation
```

. Long simulations run faster with generated code than in
interpreted execution. You can run repeated executions without recompiling, but if you
change any block parameters, then the block automatically recompiles before
execution.

This table shows how the **Simulate using** parameter affects the
overall simulation behavior.

When the Simulink^{®} model is in `Accelerator`

mode, the block mode specified
using **Simulate using** overrides the simulation mode.

**Acceleration Modes**

Block Simulation | Simulation Behavior | ||

`Normal` | `Accelerator` | `Rapid Accelerator` | |

`Interpreted Execution` | The block executes using the MATLAB interpreter. | The block executes using the MATLAB interpreter. | Creates a standalone executable from the model. |

`Code Generation` | The block is compiled. | All blocks in the model are compiled. |

For more information, see Choosing a Simulation Mode (Simulink).

#### Programmatic Use

Block
Parameter:`SimulateUsing` |

Type:enum |

Values:```
Interpreted
Execution
``` , `Code Generation` |

Default:```
Interpreted
Execution
``` |

**Noise**

**Add noise to input signal** — Add noise to input signal

`off`

(default) | `on`

Selected this check box to add noise it the input signal prior to applying
receiver effects. The **Input noise temperature (K)**
parameter determines the power of the added noise. The **Sample
rate (Hz)** parameter determines the noise bandwidth.

**Example: **
`true`

**Data Types: **`Boolean`

**Input noise temperature (K)** — Input noise temperature

`290`

(default) | positive scalar | length-*N* vector of positive values

Input noise temperature, specified as a positive scalar or
length-*N* vector of positive values where
*N* is the number of receiver channels. If the
**Input noise temperature (K)** parameter is a
scalar, the same value is applied to all channels. Units are in Kelvin
degrees.

**Example: **`300`

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, select the **Input noise
temperature (K)** check box.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

**Noise method** — Noise method

`None`

| `Noise figure`

| `Noise factor`

| `Noise temperature`

Method for defining the system noise, specified as
`None`

, ```
Noise
figure
```

, `Noise factor`

or
`Noise temperature`

.

When set to

`None`

, no noise is applied.When set to

`Noise figure`

, the**Noise figure (dB)**parameter determines the noise level.When set to

`Noise temperature`

, the**Input noise temperature (K)**parameter determines the noise level.When set to

`Noise factor`

, the**Noise factor**parameter determines the noise level.

The noise bandwidth is derived from the input signal sample rate.

**Example: **`Noise figure`

**Data Types: **`char`

| `string`

**Noise figure (dB)** — Noise figure

`3`

(default) | real scalar | length-*N* vector or real values

Receiver noise figure, specified as a real scalar or
length-*N* vector of real values. *N*
is the number of channels. If **Noise figure (dB)** is a
scalar, the same value is applied to all channels. Noise is generated with
respect to the temperature defined by the **Reference temperature
(K)** parameter.

#### Dependencies

To enable this property, set the **Noise method**
parameter to `Noise figure`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

**Noise factor** — Noise factor

`2`

(default) | positive scalar | length-*N* vector of positive values

Receiver noise factor, specified as a positive scalar or
length-*N* vector of positive values.
*N* is the number of channels. If the **Noise
factor** parameters is a scalar, the same value is applied to
all channels. Noise is generated with respect to the temperature defined by
the **Reference temperature (K)** parameter.

#### Dependencies

To enable this property, set the **Noise method**
parameter to `Noise factor`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

**Reference temperature (K)** — Reference temperature

`290`

(default) | positive scalar | length-*N* vector of positive values

Reference temperature, specified as a positive scalar or a
length-*N* vector of positive values.
*N* is the number of channels. If the
**Reference temperature (K)** parameter is a scalar,
the same value is applied to all channels.

#### Dependencies

To enable this property, set the **Noise method**
parameter to `Noise figure`

or
`Noise factor`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

**Sample rate (Hz)** — Sample rate

`1e6`

(default) | positive scalar

Sample rate of the input signal, specified as a positive scalar. Use this
parameter to add noise to the signal. The **Sample rate
(Hz)** parameter is only used to derive the noise bandwidth of
the signal.

#### Dependencies

To enable this property, select the **Add noise to input
signal** check box or set the **Noise
method** parameter to ```
Noise
figure
```

, `Noise factor`

, or
`Noise temperature`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

**Inherit sample rate** — Inherit sample rate from upstream blocks

on (default) | off

Select this parameter to inherit the sample rate from upstream blocks. Otherwise,
specify the sample rate using the **Sample rate (Hz)**
parameter.

**Data Types: **`Boolean`

**Simulate using** — Block simulation method

`Interpreted Execution`

(default) | `Code Generation`

Block simulation, specified as `Interpreted Execution`

or
`Code Generation`

. If you want your block to use the
MATLAB interpreter, choose `Interpreted Execution`

. If
you want your block to run as compiled code, choose ```
Code
Generation
```

. Compiled code requires time to compile but usually runs
faster.

Interpreted execution is useful when you are developing and tuning a model. The block
runs the underlying System object in MATLAB. You can change and execute your model quickly. When you are satisfied
with your results, you can then run the block using ```
Code
Generation
```

. Long simulations run faster with generated code than in
interpreted execution. You can run repeated executions without recompiling, but if you
change any block parameters, then the block automatically recompiles before
execution.

This table shows how the **Simulate using** parameter affects the
overall simulation behavior.

When the Simulink model is in `Accelerator`

mode, the block mode specified
using **Simulate using** overrides the simulation mode.

**Acceleration Modes**

Block Simulation | Simulation Behavior | ||

`Normal` | `Accelerator` | `Rapid Accelerator` | |

`Interpreted Execution` | The block executes using the MATLAB interpreter. | The block executes using the MATLAB interpreter. | Creates a standalone executable from the model. |

`Code Generation` | The block is compiled. | All blocks in the model are compiled. |

For more information, see Choosing a Simulation Mode (Simulink).

#### Programmatic Use

Block
Parameter:`SimulateUsing` |

Type:enum |

Values:```
Interpreted
Execution
``` , `Code Generation` |

Default:```
Interpreted
Execution
``` |

**PhaseOffset**

**Phased offset (degrees)** — Phase offset

`0`

(default) | scalar | length-*N* vector of real values

Phase offset, specified as a real scalar or length-*N*
vector of real values. *N* is the number of channels. If
**Phase offset (degrees)** is a scalar, the same
value is applied to all channels. Units are in degrees.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

**Randomization**

**Source of seed for random number generator** — Source of seed for random number generator

`Auto`

(default) | `Property`

Source of seed for random number generator, specified as
`Auto`

or `Property`

.
When source is `Auto`

, the seed if generated
automatically. When the source is `Property`

, seed
is set using the **Seed for random number generator**
parameter.

**Example: **`Property`

**Data Types: **`char`

| `string`

**Seed for random number generator** — Seed for random number generator

0 (default) | positive integer

Seed for random generator, specified as a positive integer.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

## Version History

**Introduced in R2014b**

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