PHY Simulation of Bluetooth BR/EDR, LE, and WLAN Coexistence
This example shows you how to model homogenous and heterogeneous coexistence between Bluetooth® basic rate/enhanced data rate (BR/EDR), low energy (LE) , and wireless local area waveforms (WLAN) by using Bluetooth® Toolbox.
Using this example, you can:
Perform Bluetooth BR/EDR and LE end-to-end simulation in the presence of Bluetooth BR/EDR, LE, or WLAN interference.
Perform adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) by classifying the channels as "good" or "bad" based on the packet error rate (PER).
Compute the bit error rate (BER) and signal-to-interference-plus noise ratio (SINR).
Visualize the spectrum and spectrogram of the Bluetooth BR/EDR or LE waveform in the presence of interference.
Bluetooth and WLAN Coexistence
Bluetooth operates in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band from 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz, which is also used by other technologies such as Zigbee and WLAN. Multiple homogenous and heterogeneous networks operating in this band are likely to coexist in a physical scenario. To mitigate interference, Bluetooth and WLAN implement AFH and carrier-sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), respectively. AFH enables Bluetooth devices to improve their robustness to interference and avoid interfering with other devices in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. The basic principle is to classify interference channels as bad channels and discard them from the list of available channels. This classification mechanism of AFH enables a Bluetooth device to use 79 channels or fewer in BR/EDR mode and 40 channels or fewer in LE mode. The Bluetooth Core Specification  allows a minimum of 20 channels in BR/EDR mode and 2 channels in LE mode. For more information about coexistence between Bluetooth and WLAN, see Bluetooth-WLAN Coexistence.
Coexistence mechanisms can be classified into two categories: collaborative or noncollaborative, depending on whether the involved networks operate independently of one another or coordinate their use of the spectrum. In noncollaborative coexistence, each network treats other networks as interference and performs interference mitigation techniques. In collaborative coexistence, all the networks collaborate and coordinate their use of the spectrum. This example illustrates a noncollaborative coexistence mechanism between homogenous and heterogeneous networks.
This example uses these terminologies:
AWN - Affected wireless node, can be one of these:
- Bluetooth: BR, EDR 2Mbps, EDR 3Mbps, LE 1Mbps, LE 2Mbps, LE 500Kbps, and LE 125Kbps
IWN - Interfering wireless node, can be one of these:
BR, EDR 2Mbps, EDR 3Mbps, LE 1Mbps, LE 2Mbps, LE 500Kbps, and LE 125Kbps
802.11b with 22 MHz bandwidth
802.11g with 20 MHz bandwidth
802.11n with 20 MHz and 40 MHz bandwidths
802.11ax with 20 MHz and 40 MHz bandwidths
Impact of Interference in Space, Time, and Frequency Domains
Space: As the distance between AWN and IWN nodes increases, the impact of interference in space domain decreases. In this figure, if d1 and d2 increase, the impact of the IWN transmitter interference on the AWN receiver decreases.
Time: Depending on the packet transmission timings, three possible collision probabilities arise in the time domain: full collision, partial collision, or no collision.
Full - IWN packet completely interferes with the AWN packet.
Partial - IWN packet partially interferes with the AWN packet with the given probability.
No - IWN packet does not interfere with the AWN packet.
Frequency: As the channel separation between the AWN and IWN nodes increases, the impact of interference in frequency domain decreases. In this figure, if difference between and increase, the impact of the IWN transmitter interference on the AWN receiver decreases.
Specify the AWN parameters such as the signal type, transmitter position, receiver position, transmitter power, and packet type.
Specify frequency hopping as one of these values.
Off (default) - To run simulation at a fixed frequency, use this value. If you use this value, the example configures
On - To run simulation with AFH, use this value. If you use this value, the example does not configure
awnSignalType = "LE1M"; awnTxPosition = [0,0,0]; % In meters awnRxPosition = [10,0,0]; % In meters awnTxPower = 30; % In dBm awnPacket = "Disabled"; awnFrequencyHopping = "Off"; awnFrequency = 2440*1e6; % In Hz
Configure a single or multiple IWNs and their respective parameters such as the signal type, transmitter position, fixed frequency of operation, and transmitter power. Create and configure multiple IWN nodes by using the IWN structure with different indices.
Specify the collision probability in the range [0,1]. Any value between 0 and 1 simulates partial collision. To simulate full collision, set this value to 1. To disable interference and simulate with no collisions, set this value to 0.
Add different types of WLAN signals as interference using WLAN Toolbox™. If you do not have WLAN Toolbox™, use
WLANBasebandFile to add 802.11ax signal.
iwn(1).SignalType = "WLANHESUBandwidth20.bb"; iwn(1).TxPosition = [20,0,0]; % In meters iwn(1).Frequency = 2437e6; % In Hz iwn(1).TxPower = 30; % In dBm iwn(1).CollisionProbability = 1; % Probability of collision in time, must be between [0,1] iwn(2).SignalType = "LE1M"; iwn(2).TxPosition = [25,0,0]; % In meters iwn(2).Frequency = 2420e6; % In Hz iwn(2).TxPower = 30; % In dBm iwn(2).CollisionProbability = 0.2; % Probability of collision in time, must be between [0,1]
Specify the environment, bit energy to noise density ratio (Eb/No), sample rate, and number of packets.
environment = "Outdoor"; EbNo = 10; % In dB sampleRate = 80e6; % In Hz numPackets = 500;
Set the seed for the random number generator.
Configure the waveform transmission and reception parameters of the AWN.
phyFactor = 1+strcmp(awnSignalType,"LE2M"); sps = sampleRate/(1e6*phyFactor); % Samples per symbol if sps > 8 % Decimation factor for the receiver filter decimationFactor = gcd(sps,8); else decimationFactor = 1; end if any(strcmp(awnSignalType,["LE1M","LE2M","LE500K","LE125K"])) payloadLength = 100; % Length of the payload in bytes accessAddress = "01234567"; % Access address accessAddBits = int2bit(hex2dec(accessAddress),32,false); % Derive channel index based on the AWN frequency channelIndexArray = [37 0:10 38 11:36 39]; awnBandwidth = 2e6; channelIndex = channelIndexArray((awnFrequency-2402e6)/awnBandwidth+1); % Configure the receiver parameters in a structure rxCfg = struct(Mode=awnSignalType,SamplesPerSymbol=sps/decimationFactor,ChannelIndex=channelIndex, ... DFPacketType=awnPacket,AccessAddress=accessAddBits); rxCfg.CoarseFreqCompensator = comm.CoarseFrequencyCompensator(Modulation="OQPSK", ... SampleRate=sampleRate/decimationFactor, ... SamplesPerSymbol=2*rxCfg.SamplesPerSymbol, ... FrequencyResolution=100); rxCfg.PreambleDetector = comm.PreambleDetector(Detections="First"); else % Create and configure Bluetooth waveform generation parameters awnWaveformConfig = bluetoothWaveformConfig(Mode=awnSignalType,PacketType=awnPacket, ... SamplesPerSymbol=sps); if strcmp(awnPacket,"DM1") awnWaveformConfig.PayloadLength = 17; % Maximum length of DM1 packets in bytes end payloadLength = getPayloadLength(awnWaveformConfig); % Length of the payload % Get the receiver configuration parameters rxCfg = getPhyConfigProperties(awnWaveformConfig); rxCfg.SamplesPerSymbol = sps/decimationFactor; end
Estimate the AWN path loss.
% Estimate distance between AWN transmitter and AWN receiver distanceAWNTxRx = sqrt(sum((awnTxPosition-awnRxPosition).^2)); [awnPathloss,pathlossdB] = helperBluetoothEstimatePathLoss(environment,distanceAWNTxRx);
Create and configure the IWN by using the
helperIWNConfig object. Generate IWN waveforms by using the
generateIWNWaveform method. Add the path loss based on the environment and node positions by using the
iwnConfig = helperIWNConfig(IWN=iwn,SampleRate=sampleRate,Environment=environment); iwnWaveform = generateIWNWaveform(iwnConfig); [iwnWaveformPL,iwnPathloss] = applyPathloss(iwnConfig,iwnWaveform,awnRxPosition);
bleChannelSelection objects to select a channel index for the transmission and reception of Bluetooth BR/EDR and LE waveforms, respectively.
if strcmp(awnFrequencyHopping,"On") if any(strcmp(awnSignalType,["LE1M","LE2M","LE500K","LE125K"])) frequencyHop = bleChannelSelection; % Bluetooth LE channel index System object™ numBTChannels = 37; % Number of Bluetooth LE channels minChannels = 2; % Minimum number of channels to classify else frequencyHop = bluetoothFrequencyHop; % Bluetooth BR/EDR channel index object frequencyHop.SequenceType = "Connection Adaptive"; numBTChannels = 79; % Number of Bluetooth BR/EDR channels minChannels = 20; % Minimum number of channels to classify inputClock = 0; numSlots = 1*(any(strcmp(awnPacket,["ID","NULL","POLL","FHS","HV1","HV2", ... "HV3","DV","EV3","DM1","DH1","AUX1","2-DH1","3-DH1","2-EV3","3-EV3"])))... +(3*any(strcmp(awnPacket,["EV4","EV5","DM3","DH3","2-EV5","3-EV5","2-DH3", ... "3-DH3"])))+ (5*any(strcmp(awnPacket,["DM5","DH5","2-DH5","3-DH5"]))); slotValue = numSlots*2; clockTicks = slotValue*2; % Clock ticks (one slot is two clock ticks) end end
Design a receiver filter to capture the AWN waveform.
if any(strcmp(awnSignalType,["EDR2M","EDR3M"])) rolloff = 0.4; span = 8; filterCoeff = rcosdesign(rolloff,span,sps,"sqrt"); else N = 200; % Order Fc = 1.5e6/(1+strcmp(awnSignalType,"BR")); % Cutoff frequency flag = "scale"; % Sampling flag alpha = 3; % Window parameter % Create the window vector for the design algorithm win = gausswin(N+1,alpha); % Calculate the coefficients using the FIR1 function filterCoeff = fir1(N,Fc/(sampleRate/2),"low",win,flag); end firdec = dsp.FIRDecimator(decimationFactor,filterCoeff);
Compute the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).
codeRate = 1*any(strcmp(awnSignalType,["LE1M","LE2M"]))+1/2*strcmp(awnSignalType,"LE500K")+1/8*strcmp(awnSignalType,"LE125K")+... any(strcmp(awnSignalType,["BR","EDR2M","EDR3M"]))*(1-2/3*strcmp(awnPacket,"HV1")-... 1/3*any(strcmp(awnPacket,["FHS","DM1","DM3","DM5","HV2","DV","EV4"]))); % Code rate bitsPerSymbol = 1+ strcmp(awnSignalType,"EDR2M") + 2*(strcmp(awnSignalType,"EDR3M")); % Number of bits per symbol snr = EbNo + 10*log10(codeRate) + 10*log10(bitsPerSymbol) - 10*log10(sps);
Create and configure the spectrum analyzer to visualize the spectrum and spectrogram of the Bluetooth BR/EDR or LE waveform in the presence of interference.
spectrumAnalyzer = dsp.SpectrumAnalyzer(... Name="Bluetooth Coexistence Modeling", ... ViewType="Spectrum and spectrogram", ... TimeResolutionSource="Property", ... TimeResolution=0.0005, ... SampleRate=sampleRate, ... TimeSpanSource="Property", ... TimeSpan=0.05, ... FrequencyResolutionMethod="WindowLength", ... WindowLength=512, ... AxesLayout="Horizontal", ... YLimits=[-100 20], ... ColorLimits=[-100 20]);
This diagram summarizes the example workflow.
Perform these steps to simulate the coexistence scenario.
Generate AWN (Bluetooth BR/EDR or LE) waveforms.
Distort each AWN waveform with these RF impairments: timing offset, carrier frequency offset, and DC offset.
Hop the waveform (frequency shift based on a center frequency of 2440 MHz) using the channel index derived from AFH.
Scale the hopped waveform with the transmitter power and path loss.
Generate and add IWN waveforms (Bluetooth BR/EDR, LE, or WLAN) based on the collision probabilities.
Add additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).
Filter the noisy waveform.
Recover the bits from the filtered waveform by performing timing synchronization, carrier frequency offset correction, and DC offset correction.
Compute the PER, BER, and SINR.
If frequency hopping is on, classify the channels.
% Classify the channels for every |numPacketsToClassify| packets. If the PER of the % channel is greater than |thresholdPER|, then map the corresponding channel % as bad. numPacketsToClassify = 50; thresholdPER = 0.2; % Create an instance of the error rate errorRate = comm.ErrorRate; % Initialize variables to perform the simulation numErrors = 0; numPktLost = 0; countPER = 0; countPreviousPER = 0; midFrequency = 2440e6; if strcmp(awnFrequencyHopping,"On") errorsBasic = deal(zeros(numBTChannels,3)); errorsBasic(:,1) = (0:numBTChannels-1); end % Number of interfering nodes that collide with AWN collisionCount = 0; for index = 1:iwnConfig.NumIWNNodes collisionCount = collisionCount + (iwn(index).CollisionProbability > 0); end if strcmp(awnFrequencyHopping,"On") && collisionCount ~= 0 sinr = zeros(numPackets,1); end % Loop to simulate multiple packets for inum = 1:numPackets % Generate AWN waveform if any(strcmp(awnSignalType,["LE1M","LE2M","LE500K","LE125K"])) if strcmp(awnFrequencyHopping,"On") channelIndex = frequencyHop(); channelFrequencies = [2404:2:2424 2428:2:2478 2402 2426 2480]*1e6; awnFrequency = channelFrequencies(channelIndex+1); end txBits = randi([0 1],payloadLength*8,1,"int8"); awnWaveform = bleWaveformGenerator(int8(txBits),Mode=awnSignalType,ChannelIndex=channelIndex, ... SamplesPerSymbol=sps,AccessAddress=accessAddBits,DFPacketType=awnPacket); else if strcmp(awnFrequencyHopping,"On") inputClock = inputClock + clockTicks; % Frequency hopping channelIndex = nextHop(frequencyHop,inputClock) awnFrequency = (2402+channelIndex)*1e6; % Generate whiten initialization vector from clock clockBinary = int2bit(inputClock,28,false).'; awnWaveformConfig.WhitenInitialization = [clockBinary(2:7)'; 1]; end txBits = randi([0 1],payloadLength*8,1); awnWaveform = bluetoothWaveformGenerator(txBits,awnWaveformConfig); end % Add timing offset timingOffset = randsrc(1,1,1:0.1:100); timingOffsetWaveform = helperBLEDelaySignal(awnWaveform,timingOffset); % Add frequency offset freqOffsetImp = randsrc(1,1,-10e3:100:10e3); freqOffsetWaveform = helperBLEFrequencyOffset(timingOffsetWaveform,sampleRate,freqOffsetImp); % Add DC offset dcValue = (5/100)*max(freqOffsetWaveform); dcWaveform = freqOffsetWaveform + dcValue; % Shift the waveform by making 2440 MHz as the mid frequency freqOffset = awnFrequency-midFrequency; hopWaveform = helperBLEFrequencyOffset(dcWaveform,sampleRate,freqOffset); % Scale the waveform as per the transmitter power and path loss soiAmplitudeLinear = 10^((awnTxPower-30)/20)/awnPathloss; attenAWNWaveform = soiAmplitudeLinear*hopWaveform; % Add IWN waveforms to AWN waveform addIWN2AWN = addInterference(iwnConfig,attenAWNWaveform,iwnWaveformPL,timingOffset); % Frequency shift the waveform by |-freqOffset| freqShiftWaveform = helperBLEFrequencyOffset(addIWN2AWN,sampleRate,-freqOffset); % Add AWGN soiPower = 20*log10(soiAmplitudeLinear); noisePower = soiPower - snr; splusibyn = 10*log10(var(freqShiftWaveform))-noisePower; noisyWaveform = awgn(freqShiftWaveform,splusibyn,"measured"); % Apply filter if rem(length(noisyWaveform),sps) remainder = sps-rem(length(noisyWaveform),sps); noisyWaveform = [noisyWaveform;zeros(remainder,1)]; %#ok<AGROW> end delay = floor(length(firdec.Numerator)/(2*decimationFactor)); noisyWaveformPadded = [noisyWaveform;zeros(delay*decimationFactor,1)]; filteredWaveform = firdec(noisyWaveformPadded); release(firdec) filteredWaveform = filteredWaveform(1+delay:end)*sqrt(decimationFactor); % Recover the data bits if any(strcmp(awnSignalType,["LE1M","LE2M","LE500K","LE125K"])) rxCfg.ChannelIndex = channelIndex; [rxBits,accAddress] = helperBLEPracticalReceiver(filteredWaveform,rxCfg); if isempty(rxBits) || ~isequal(accessAddBits,accAddress) pktStatus = ; end else % Get PHY properties rxCfg.WhitenInitialization = awnWaveformConfig.WhitenInitialization; [rxBits,~,pktStatus]... = helperBluetoothPracticalReceiver(filteredWaveform,rxCfg); end
Compute the BER and PER for each packet. If frequency hopping is on,
Perform channel classification for every
numPacketsToClassifybased on the PER.
Compute the SINR for each packet.
Visualize the Bluetooth BR/EDR or LE waveform with the interference.
% Compute BER and PER lengthTx = length(txBits); lengthRx = length(rxBits); lengthMinimum = min(lengthTx,lengthRx)-1; countPreviousPER = countPER; if lengthTx && lengthRx vectorBER = errorRate(txBits(1:lengthMinimum),rxBits(1:lengthMinimum)); currentErrors = vectorBER(2)-numErrors; % Number of errors in current packet if currentErrors || (lengthTx ~= lengthRx) % Check if current packet is in error or not countPER = countPER+1; % Increment the PER count end numErrors = vectorBER(2); elseif ~isempty(pktStatus) countPER = countPER+~pktStatus; % Increment the PER count else numPktLost = numPktLost+1; end % Perform frequency hopping if strcmp(awnFrequencyHopping,"On") chIdx = channelIndex+1; if countPreviousPER ~= countPER errorsBasic(chIdx,3) = errorsBasic(chIdx,3)+1; end % Classify the channels if any(inum == (1:floor(numPackets/numPacketsToClassify))*numPacketsToClassify) channelMap = errorsBasic(:,3)/numPacketsToClassify > thresholdPER; if nnz(channelMap) == 0 continue; end badChannels = find(channelMap)-1; if length(frequencyHop.UsedChannels)-length(badChannels) < minChannels errorsBasic(badChannels+1,3) = 0; usedChannels = 0:36; else errorsBasic(badChannels+1,3) = 0; usedChannels = setdiff(frequencyHop.UsedChannels,badChannels); end frequencyHop.UsedChannels = usedChannels; end end % Visualize the spectrum and spectrogram. Compute SINR. if strcmp(awnFrequencyHopping,"On") && collisionCount ~= 0 sinr(inum) = helperBluetoothSINREstimate(snr,awnTxPower,awnFrequency,pathlossdB,iwnConfig,iwnPathloss); spectrumAnalyzer(addIWN2AWN) elseif (strcmp(awnFrequencyHopping,"Off") && inum < 70) || (strcmp(awnFrequencyHopping,"On") && collisionCount == 0) if inum == 1 sinr = helperBluetoothSINREstimate(snr,awnTxPower,awnFrequency,pathlossdB,iwnConfig,iwnPathloss); end spectrumAnalyzer(addIWN2AWN) end end
% Compute BER and PER if ~any(strcmp(awnPacket,["ID","NULL","POLL"])) if numPackets ~= numPktLost per = countPER/(numPackets-numPktLost); ber = vectorBER(1); fprintf('Mode %s, Simulated for Eb/No = %d dB, Obtained BER: %d, Obtained PER: %d\n',awnSignalType,EbNo,ber,per); else fprintf('No Bluetooth packets were detected.\n'); end else if numPackets ~= numPktLost per = countPER/(numPackets-numPktLost); fprintf('Mode %s, Simulated for Eb/No = %d dB, Obtained PER: %d\n',awnSignalType,EbNo,per); else fprintf('No Bluetooth packets were detected.\n'); end end
Mode LE1M, Simulated for Eb/No = 10 dB, Obtained BER: 3.804756e-04, Obtained PER: 8.940000e-01
This example simulates an end-to-end link for Bluetooth BR/EDR and LE with Bluetooth BR/EDR, LE, or WLAN waveforms as interference. You can implement AFH to mitigate interference by classifying channels as good or bad based on the PER value.
To observe the PER performance with interferer distance, you can run the simulation for different IWN transmitter positions. This plot shows the impact of interferer distance on PER given:
Bluetooth LE1M AWN, 10 meters distance between the AWN transmitter and receiver, an AWN frequency of 2440 MHz, and an Eb/No value of 10 dB.
802.11 g with 20 MHz bandwidth IWN, an IWN frequency of 2437 MHz (co-channel interference), and a collision probability of 1.
To observe the PER performance with interferer channel separation, you can run the simulation for different IWN frequencies (when frequency hopping is off). This plot shows the impact of interferer channel separation on PER given:
Bluetooth LE1M AWN, 10 m distance between the AWN transmitter and receiver, and an Eb/No value of 10 dB.
802.11g with 20 MHz bandwidth IWN, an IWN frequency of 2437 MHz, a collision probability of 1, and 10 m distance between the AWN and IWN transmitters.
To observe the PER performance with collision probability, you can run the simulation for different collision probabilities. This plot shows the impact of collision probability on PER by considering:
Bluetooth LE1M AWN, an AWN frequency of 2440 MHz, 10 m between the AWN transmitter and receiver, and an Eb/No value of 10 dB.
802.11g with 20 MHz bandwidth IWN, an IWN frequency of 2437 MHz, and 10 m between the AWN and IWN transmitters.
The example uses these helper functions:
helperIWNConfig: Interference wireless node configuration parameters
helperBLEDelaySignal: Introduce time delay in the signal
helperBLEFrequencyOffset: Apply frequency offset to the input signal
helperBLEPracticalReceiver: Demodulate and decode the received signal
helperBluetoothPracticalReceiver: Detect, synchronize, and decode the received Bluetooth BR/EDR waveform
helperBluetoothEstimatePathLoss: Estimate the path loss between the node and locator
helperBluetoothSINREstimate: Estimate SINR
Bluetooth Technology Website. “Bluetooth Technology Website | The Official Website of Bluetooth Technology.” Accessed November 15, 2021. https://www.bluetooth.com.
Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). "Core System Package [Low Energy Controller Volume]". Bluetooth Core Specification. Version 5.3, Volume https://www.bluetooth.com.