Main Content

Signal Propagation

Narrowband and wideband free-space propagation, two-ray channel propagation, multipath underwater sound propagation, atmospheric losses, spatial MIMO channels

The Phased Array System Toolbox™ lets you model monostatic and bistatic free-space signal propagation. Alternatively, you can employ simple multipath propagation using a two-ray propagation model. The LOS models calculate signal propagation through atmospheric gases, rain, and fog and clouds. These models are available for narrowband and wideband signals. You can model multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) narrowband communications channels.


expand all

phased.FreeSpaceFree space environment
phased.LOSChannelNarrowband LOS propagation channel
phased.TwoRayChannelTwo-ray propagation channel
phased.ScatteringMIMOChannelScattering MIMO channel
phased.IsoSpeedUnderwaterPathsIsospeed multipath sonar channel
phased.MultipathChannelPropagate signals in multipath channel
phased.WidebandFreeSpaceWideband freespace propagation
phased.WidebandLOSChannelWideband LOS propagation channel
phased.WidebandTwoRayChannelWideband two-ray propagation channel


expand all

Free SpaceFree space environment
LOS ChannelNarrowband line-of-sight propagation channel
Scattering MIMO ChannelScattering MIMO propagation channel
Two-Ray ChannelTwo-ray channel environment
Wideband Free SpaceWideband free space environment
Wideband LOS ChannelWideband line-of-sight propagation channel
Wideband Two-Ray ChannelWideband two-ray channel environment
Range Angle CalculatorRange and angle calculations
Azimuth Broadside ConverterConvert azimuth angle to broadside angle or broadside angle to azimuth angle


expand all

fogplRF signal attenuation due to fog and clouds
fsplFree space path loss
gasplRF signal attenuation due to atmospheric gases
rainplRF signal attenuation due to rainfall
cranerainplRF signal attenuation due to rainfall using Crane model
tiremplPath loss using Terrain Integrated Rough Earth Model (TIREM)
rangeangleRange and angle calculation
scatteringchanmtxScattering channel matrix
waterfillWaterfill MIMO power distribution
effearthradiusEffective earth radius
physconstPhysical constants


Path Loss

Free Space Path Loss

Propagation environments have significant effects on the amplitude, phase, and shape of propagating space-time wavefields.

Electromagnetic Waves

Polarized Fields

Polarized electromagnetic fields.

Standards and Conventions

This section introduces the concept of baseband signals and defines the local and global coordinate systems used in the toolbox.

Units of Measure and Physical Constants

Phased Array System Toolbox uses the International System of Units (SI).