# Cartridge Valve Insert with Conical Seat

Hydraulic cartridge valve insert with conical seat

## Library

Directional Valves

## Description

The Cartridge Valve Insert with Conical Seat block represents an insert of a hydraulic cartridge valve consisting of a poppet interacting with the conical seat. The poppet position is determined by pressures at ports A, B, and X and force of the spring. A schematic diagram of the cartridge valve insert with conical seat is shown in the following illustration.

The Cartridge Valve Insert with Conical Seat block is a structural model consisting of a Hydraulic Cartridge Valve Actuator block and a Poppet Valve block, as shown in the next illustration.

Pressures at port A and port B tend to open the valve, while pressure at the control port X, together with the spring, acts to close it. The model does not account for flow rates caused by poppet displacement and any loading on the poppet, such as inertia and friction. The valve remains closed as long as the aggregate pressure force is lower than the spring preload force. The poppet is forced off its seat as the preload force is reached and moves up proportionally to pressure increase until it passes the full stroke. Hydraulic properties of the gap between the poppet and the seat are simulated with the Poppet Valve block.

Connections A, B, and X are hydraulic conserving ports associated with the valve inlet, valve outlet, and valve control terminal, respectively. The block positive direction is from port A to port B. Pressure at port X acts to close the valve, while pressures at port A and port B act to open the orifice.

## Basic Assumptions and Limitations

• Valve opening is linearly proportional to the pressure differential.

• No loading on the poppet, such as inertia or friction, is considered.

• The model does not account for flow consumption caused by poppet displacement.

## Dialog Box and Parameters

Port A poppet area

Effective poppet area at port A. The parameter value must be greater than zero. The default value is `2e-4` m^2.

Port A to port X area ratio

Ratio between poppet areas at port A and port X. The parameter value must be greater than zero. The default value is `0.66`.

Spring preload force. The default value is `26` N.

Spring rate

Spring rate. The default value is `1.4e4` N/m.

Poppet stroke

Maximum poppet stroke. The parameter value must be greater than zero. The default value is `0.005` m.

Poppet diameter

Maximum poppet diameter. The parameter value must be greater than or equal to zero. The default value is `0.01` m.

Seat cone angle

The cone angle of the valve seat. The default value is `120` degrees.

Initial opening

The initial opening of the valve. Its value must be greater than or equal to zero. The default value is `0`.

Flow discharge coefficient

Semi-empirical parameter for valve capacity characterization. Its value depends on the geometrical properties of the orifice, and usually is provided in textbooks or manufacturer data sheets. The default value is `0.7`.

Critical Reynolds number

The maximum Reynolds number for laminar flow. The transition from laminar to turbulent regime is assumed to take place when the Reynolds number reaches this value. The value of the parameter depends on the orifice geometrical profile. You can find recommendations on the parameter value in hydraulics textbooks. The default value is `12`.

Leakage area

The total area of possible leaks in the completely closed valve. The main purpose of the parameter is to maintain numerical integrity of the circuit by preventing a portion of the system from getting isolated after the valve is completely closed. The parameter value must be greater than 0. The default value is `1e-12` m^2.

Time constant

Sets the time constant of the first-order lag, which is introduced between the required and the actual poppet positions to account for actuator dynamics. The parameter value must be greater than zero. The default value is `0.01` s.

## Global Parameters

Parameters determined by the type of working fluid:

• Fluid density

• Fluid kinematic viscosity

Use the Hydraulic Fluid block or the Custom Hydraulic Fluid block to specify the fluid properties.

## Ports

The block has the following ports:

`A`

Hydraulic conserving port associated with the valve inlet.

`B`

Hydraulic conserving port associated with the valve outlet.

`X`

Hydraulic conserving port associated with the valve control terminal.

## Examples

For an example of using this block, see the Injection Molding Actuation System example.